Christian W. Schindler

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OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of a school based physical activity programme during one school year on physical and psychological health in young schoolchildren. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING 28 classes from 15 elementary schools in Switzerland randomly selected and assigned in a 4:3 ratio to an intervention (n=16) or(More)
Characterization of how interferons (IFNs) mediate their biological response led to identification of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, where JAKs are receptor-associated kinases and STATs the transcription factors they activate. Today, 4 JAKs and 7 STATs are known to transduce pivotal signals for the over 50 members of the four-helix bundle family of(More)
Several studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants, but in most of theses studies linear nonthreshold relations were assumed. We investigated the exposure-response association between ambient particles and mortality in the 22 European cities participating in the APHEA (Air Pollution and Health--A(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown associations between mortality and long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Few cohort studies have estimated the effects of the elemental composition of particulate matter on mortality. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to study the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to elemental(More)
BACKGROUND Decreasing exposure to airborne particulates was previously associated with reduced age-related decline in lung function. However, whether the benefit from improved air quality depends on genetic background is not known. Recent evidence points to the involvement of the genes p53 and p21 and of the cell cycle control gene cyclin D1 (CCND1) in the(More)
BACKGROUND Active smoking has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but only few recent studies have shown environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to be associated with DM in never-smokers. We assessed the association between long term ETS exposure and DM, and explored effect modifications of this association in our sample. METHODS We analysed 6392(More)
We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air(More)
50 years ago Isaacs and Lindenmann (1) first described inter-ferons (IFNs) 2 as founding members of the cytokine family. Over the next 25 years, these and several other four-helix bundle cytokines were characterized. The subsequent 25 years witnessed an exponential growth in number of four-helix bundle cytokines and their corresponding receptors. The early(More)
The early colocalization of T cells and the potent immuno-stimulatory cytokine IFN-␥ to atherosclerotic lesions suggest that the immune system contributes to atherogenesis. Since mice with a targeted disruption of the apoE gene (apoE 0 mice) develop profound atherosclerosis, we examined the role of IFN-␥ in this process. First, the presence of CD4 ϩ and CD8(More)
Transcriptional regulation of the Nos2 gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) requires type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and additional signals emanating from pattern recognition receptors. Here we showed sequential and cooperative contributions of the transcription factors ISGF3 (a complex containing STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9 subunits) and(More)