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OBJECTIVES Thirty years after its introduction, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still first-line treatment for more than half of all urinary tract stones, but machines and treatment strategies have significantly developed over time. In this review, we summarise the latest knowledge about the clinically important aspects of ESWL. METHODS We(More)
The incidence of ureteric obstruction after kidney transplantation is 3-12.4%, and the most common cause is ureteric stenosis. The standard treatment remains open surgical revision, but this is associated with significant morbidity and potential complications. By contrast, endourological approaches such as balloon dilatation of the ureter, ureterotomy or(More)
THE PROBLEM The demographic development of society leads to an increased demand for physicians. Particularly in the surgical disciplines, there is a noticeably declining interest among graduates from medical schools worldwide. For reasons discussed in detail, this applies especially to urology. SOLUTIONS We indicate possibilities on how to counteract this(More)
OBJECTIVES To present the chronological development of the different positions described for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), in an attempt to identify the reasons for their development and to highlight their specific advantages and disadvantages. METHODS Previous reports were identified by a non-systematic search of Medline and Scopus. RESULTS The(More)
Objective. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the main aspects and currently used drugs for analgesia in shockwave lithotripsy. Evidence Acquisition. We reviewed current literature, concentrating on newer articles and high-quality reviews in international journals. Results. No standardized protocols for pain control in SWL exist,(More)