Christian W. Bach

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OBJECTIVES Thirty years after its introduction, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still first-line treatment for more than half of all urinary tract stones, but machines and treatment strategies have significantly developed over time. In this review, we summarise the latest knowledge about the clinically important aspects of ESWL. METHODS We(More)
In game theory, basic solution concepts often conflict with experimental findings or intuitive reasoning. This fact is possibly due to the requirement that zero probability be assigned to irrational choices in these concepts. Here, we introduce the epistemic notion of common belief in utility proportional beliefs which also assigns positive probability to(More)
Epistemic game theory scrutinizes the relationship between knowledge, belief and choice of rational players. Here, the relationship between common knowledge and the limit of higher-order mutual knowledge is studied from a topological point of view. More precisely, the new epistemic operator limit knowledge defined as the topological limit of higher-order(More)
The incidence of ureteric obstruction after kidney transplantation is 3-12.4%, and the most common cause is ureteric stenosis. The standard treatment remains open surgical revision, but this is associated with significant morbidity and potential complications. By contrast, endourological approaches such as balloon dilatation of the ureter, ureterotomy or(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for prostatectomy (RALP) and upper tract procedures, and show the differences between the classical approach to training and the new concept of parallel learning. METHODS This mini-review is based on the results of a Medline search using the keywords 'da Vinci', 'robot-assisted(More)
THE PROBLEM The demographic development of society leads to an increased demand for physicians. Particularly in the surgical disciplines, there is a noticeably declining interest among graduates from medical schools worldwide. For reasons discussed in detail, this applies especially to urology. SOLUTIONS We indicate possibilities on how to counteract this(More)
OBJECTIVES To present the chronological development of the different positions described for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), in an attempt to identify the reasons for their development and to highlight their specific advantages and disadvantages. METHODS Previous reports were identified by a non-systematic search of Medline and Scopus. RESULTS The(More)