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Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins containing a presequence (cTP), and post-translationally imported via the Tic/Toc complex into the organelle, where the cTP is removed. Only a few unambiguous instances of cp proteins that do not require cTPs (non-canonical cp proteins) have(More)
Plants are exposed to a wide range of potential pathogens, which derive from diverse phyla. Therefore, plants have developed successful defense mechanisms during co-evolution with different pathogens. Besides many specialized defense mechanisms, the plant cell wall represents a first line of defense. It is actively reinforced through the deposition of cell(More)
An important question in assessing the stability of a total hip arthroplasty is the effect of daily physical activities of patients. The aim of this study is to examine these effects when standing up from three different seat heights. A musculoskeletal body model has been modified to simulate the three different seat heights. The calculated muscle forces(More)
We define and study equivariant periodic cyclic homology for locally compact groups. This can be viewed as a noncommutative generalization of equivariant de Rham cohomology. Although the construction resembles the Cuntz-Quillen approach to ordinary cyclic homology, a completely new feature in the equivariant setting is the fact that the basic ingredient in(More)
In this paper we analyse the use of patterns across a number of fields including architecture, software development and educational technology design. Focusing on the reusability of a pattern outside its area of development, we have identified several issues related to the context and the value system of a pattern. The paper draws together lessons learned(More)
Successful defence of plants against colonisation by fungal pathogens depends on the ability to prevent initial penetration of the plant cell wall. Here we report that the pathogen-induced (1,3)-β-glucan cell wall polymer callose, which is deposited at sites of attempted penetration, directly interacts with the most prominent cell wall polymer, the(More)
We define and study equivariant analytic and local cyclic homology for smooth actions of totally disconnected groups on bornological algebras. Our approach contains equivariant entire cyclic cohomology in the sense of Klimek, Kondracki and Lesniewski as a special case and provides an equivariant extension of the local cyclic theory developped by Puschnigg.(More)