Christian Thaller

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All-trans retinoic acid (RA) has previously been shown to modulate the transcriptional properties of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). The inability of all-trans RA to bind to RXR suggests that it may be metabolized to a more active high affinity ligand. We report here an experimental approach that has identified 9-cis RA as an(More)
Excess retinoids as well as retinoid deprivation cause abnormal development, suggesting that retinoid homeostasis is critical for proper morphogenesis. RALDH-2 and CYP26, two key enzymes that carry out retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and degradation, respectively, were cloned from the chick and show significant homology with their orthologs in other(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) induces striking digit pattern duplications when locally applied to the developing chick limb bud. Instead of the normal digit pattern (234) a mirror-symmetrical 432234 pattern can be specified. Hence, RA closely mimics posterior limb bud tissue (the zone of polarizing activity, ZPA) that causes very similar duplications when(More)
In the chick limb bud, the zone of polarizing activity controls limb patterning along the anteroposterior and proximodistal axes. Since retinoic acid can induce ectopic polarizing activity, we examined whether this molecule plays a role in the establishment of the endogenous zone of polarizing activity. Grafts of wing bud mesenchyme treated with physiologic(More)
The face is one of the most intricately patterned structures in human and yet little is known of the mechanisms by which the tissues are instructed to grow, fuse, and differentiate. We undertook a study to determine if the craniofacial primordia used the same molecular cues that mediate growth and patterning in other embryonic tissues such as the neural(More)
We show that retinoid receptor antagonists applied to the presumptive wing region block the formation of a zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). This suggests a direct relationship between retinoid signaling and the establishment of the ZPA. We provide evidence that the Hox gene, Hoxb-8, is a direct target of retinoid signaling since exogenously applied RA(More)
Both retinoid receptor null mutants and classic nutritional deficiency studies have demonstrated that retinoids are essential for the normal development of diverse embryonic structures (e.g. eye, heart, nervous system, urogenital tract). Detailed analysis of retinoid-modulated events is hampered by several limitations of these models, including that(More)
Hensen's node of amniotes, like the Spemann organizer of amphibians, can induce a second body axis when grafted into a host embryo. The avian node, as well as several midline structures originating from it (notochord, floor plate), can also induce digit pattern duplications when grafted into the chick wing bud. We report here that the equivalent of Hensen's(More)
It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick(More)
In many developing organisms the establishment of axial polarity and the patterning of cells depend on local signals that derive from restricted regions of the embryo. In vertebrate embryos, the origins of tissue polarity have been examined extensively in the developing limb. The anteroposterior pattern of the chick limb seems to be controlled by a(More)