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BACKGROUND The intestinal mucosa is characterized by complex metabolic and immunological processes driven highly dynamic gene expression programs. With the advent of next generation sequencing and its utilization for the analysis of the RNA sequence space, the level of detail on the global architecture of the transcriptome reached a new order of magnitude(More)
The protease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaves tumor necrosis factor (TNF), L-selectin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) ligands from the plasma membrane. ADAM17 is expressed in most tissues and is up-regulated during inflammation and cancer. ADAM17-deficient mice are not viable. Conditional ADAM17 knockout models demonstrated(More)
Molecular danger signals attract neutrophilic granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)) to sites of infection. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 43 recognizes propionate and butyrate and is abundantly expressed on PMNs. The functional role of GPR43 activation for in vivo orchestration of immune response is unclear. We examined dextrane sodium(More)
Mucosal epithelial cell layers are constantly exposed to a complex resident microflora. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by pathogen binding. This report describes the regulation and function of DMBT1 in intestinal(More)
Alterations in splicing patterns of genes contribute to the regulation of gene function by generating endogenous inhibitor or activator molecules. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 is an intracellular receptor for bacterial cell wall components and plays an important role in initiating immune responses against cytoinvasive pathogens.(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-inhibiting peptide D-JNKI-1, syn. XG-102 was tested for its therapeutic potential in acute inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) provoked a dramatic acute inflammation in the colon of 7-9 weeks old mice. Coincident subcutaneous application(More)
Osteopontin (OPN) is characterized as a major amplifier of Th1-immune responses. However, its role in intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We found considerably raised OPN levels in blood of wild-type (WT) mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. To identify the role of this mediator in intestinal inflammation, we analysed(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) in rodents. It reflects the wide spectrum of disease pathology and serves as a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis and for testing new therapies of MS. In order to identify genes(More)
OBJECTIVE Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with an enhanced risk for liver and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. NAFLD can progress from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the mechanisms predisposing to this progression remain undefined. Notably,(More)