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Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Lithium is a first-line treatment in bipolar disorder, but individual response is variable. Previous studies have suggested that lithium response is a heritable trait. However, no genetic markers of treatment response have been reproducibly identified. METHODS Here, we report the results of a genome-wide association study of lithium response in(More)
OBJECTIVE Although bipolar disorder has high heritability, the onset occurs during several decades of life, suggesting that social and environmental factors may have considerable influence on disease onset. This study examined the association between the age of onset and sunlight at the location of onset. METHOD Data were obtained from 2414 patients with(More)
N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonists decrease neurotoxicity by inhibiting Ca2+ influx which is of interest for the treatment of acute cerebrovascular insults and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, there is no surrogate marker for quantification of NMDA-receptor-mediated drug effects, which hampers dose-finding clinical studies. As prolactin(More)
The mortality of patients suffering from affective disorders is much higher than that of the general population; this excess is due to both suicides and cardiovascular disease. During long-term lithium treatment, the overall mortality has not been found to differ significantly from that of the general population but the question remains whether this(More)
This study is based on 20 healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females). Between 675 and 1,225 mg lithium carbonate per day was applied for 10 days. EEG was recorded before (day 0) and after lithium intake (day 10) with 19 electrodes and quantified by spectrum analyses. Absolute power and coherence values, between adjacent electrodes and between electrodes(More)
We have previously shown that the mortality of patients with recurrent affective disorders in long-term lithium treatment is not higher than that of the general population. In the present study on 471 patients from Denmark and Germany, we examined mortality during the initial year of lithium treatment and during later lithium treatment. During initial(More)
BACKGROUND The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first(More)
A multicenter randomized 4-week interindividual double-blind study was carried out in 58 hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder (DSM III 296.23, 296.22, 296.33, 296.32, 296.53 and 296.52) to test the dose-effect relationship of three different doses of the new cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram: 3 x 0.25 mg, 3 x 0.50 mg and 3 x 1.00 mg(More)