Christian Schroeder

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Mossbauer spectra measured by the Opportunity rover revealed four mineralogical components in Meridiani Planum at Eagle crater: jarosite- and hematite-rich outcrop, hematite-rich soil, olivine-bearing basaltic soil, and a pyroxene-bearing basaltic rock (Bounce rock). Spherules, interpreted to be concretions, are hematite-rich and dispersed throughout the(More)
[1] Water played a major role in the formation and alteration of rocks and soils in the Columbia Hills. The extent of alteration ranges from moderate to extensive. Five distinct rock compositional classes were identified; the order for degree of alteration is Watchtower ffi Clovis > Wishstone ffi Peace > Backstay. The rover’s wheels uncovered one unusual(More)
[1] Experimental data for alteration of synthetic Martian basalts at pH = 0–1 indicate that chemical fractionations at low pH are vastly different from those observed during terrestrial weathering. Rock surface analyses from Gusev crater are well described by the relationships apparent from low-pH experimental alteration data. A model for rock surface(More)
Krüppel (Kr), a segmentation gene of Drosophila, encodes a protein sharing structural features of the DNA-binding "finger motif" of TFIIIA, a Xenopus transcription factor. Low-stringency hybridization of the Kr finger coding sequence revealed multiple copies of homologous DNA sequences in the genomes of Drosophila and other eukaryotes. Molecular analysis of(More)
[1] The Mössbauer spectrometer on Spirit measured the oxidation state of Fe, identified Fe-bearing phases, and measured relative abundances of Fe among those phases for surface materials on the plains and in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Eight Fe-bearing phases were identified: olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, nanophase ferric oxide (npOx),(More)
R. E. Arvidson, S. W. Ruff, R. V. Morris, D. W. Ming, L. S. Crumpler, A. S. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, J. F. Bell III, N. A. Cabrol, B. C. Clark, W. H. Farrand, R. Gellert, R. Greenberger, J. A. Grant, E. A. Guinness, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. A. Hurowitz, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, K. W. Lewis, R. Li, T. J. McCoy, J. Moersch, H. Y. McSween, S. L.(More)
PURPOSE Endothelin (ET)-1, one of the most potent vasoconstrictors known, is converted from its less potent precursor big ET by the endothelin converting enzyme (ECE). In vitro studies suggest that ET has an important role in smooth muscle growth after bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). We investigated the effect of an orally administered ECE inhibitor by(More)
[1] The Mössbauer (MB) spectrometer on Opportunity measured the Fe oxidation state, identified Fe-bearing phases, and measured relative abundances of Fe among those phases at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Eight Fe-bearing phases were identified: jarosite (K,Na,H3O)(Fe,Al)(OH)6(SO4)2, hematite, olivine, pyroxene, magnetite, nanophase ferric oxides (npOx), an(More)
[1] Mössbauer spectroscopy is a powerful tool for quantitative mineralogical analysis of Fe-bearing materials. The miniature Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is a component of the Athena science payload launched to Mars in 2003 on both Mars Exploration Rover missions. The instrument has two major components: (1) a rover-based electronics board that contains(More)
[1] Excavating into the shallow Martian subsurface has the potential to expose stratigraphic layers and mature regolith, which may hold a record of more ancient aqueous interactions than those expected under current Martian surface conditions. During the Spirit rover’s exploration of Gusev crater, rover wheels were used to dig three trenches into the(More)