Christian Schnell

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EphB4 and its cognitive ligand ephrinB2 play an important role in embryonic vessel development and vascular remodeling. In addition, several reports suggest that this receptor ligand pair is also involved in pathologic vessel formation in adults including tumor angiogenesis. Eph/ephrin signaling is a complex phenomena characterized by receptor forward(More)
Neuronal activity in the respiratory network is functionally dependent on inhibitory synaptic transmission. Using two-photon excitation microscopy, we analyzed the integration of glycinergic neurons in the isolated inspiratory pre-Bötzinger complex-driven network of the rhythmic slice preparation. Inspiratory (96%) and 'tonic' expiratory neurons (4%) were(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis is a common finding in chronic inflammatory diseases; however, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. Central nervous system lesions from both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, contain T cells, macrophages and activated glia, which can produce pro-angiogenic factors. Previous EAE(More)
Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled(More)
Initial studies with angiogenesis inhibitors showed little clinical benefit. However, recently reported clinical studies in colorectal cancer have shown that bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody, in combination with cytotoxic therapy has positive effects on patient survival. Furthermore, the VEGF receptor kinase(More)
Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used for astrocyte identification, though the labeling mechanism remains unknown and the efficacy of labeling in different brain regions is heterogeneous. By combining region-specific isolation of astrocytes followed by transcriptome analysis, two-photon excitation microscopy, and mouse genetics, we identified the(More)
Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed(More)
The neuronal network in the pre-Bötzinger Complex is the key element of respiratory rhythm generation. Isolated in a slice preparation, the pre-Bötzinger Complex network is still able to generate its inspiratory activity. Although the mechanism of rhythm generation in principle relies on glutamatergic neurons, interestingly we found that glycinergic neurons(More)
Both glycinergic and GABAergic neurons require the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) for synaptic vesicle filling. Presynaptic GABA concentrations are determined by the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67, whereas the presynaptic glycine content depends on the plasma membrane glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2).(More)
Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of(More)