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The members of the ABC transporter family transport a wide variety of molecules into or out of cells and cellular compartments. Apart from a translocation pore, each member possesses two similar nucleoside triphosphate-binding subunits or domains in order to couple the energy-providing reaction with transport. In the maltose transporter of several(More)
Neuronal activity in the respiratory network is functionally dependent on inhibitory synaptic transmission. Using two-photon excitation microscopy, we analyzed the integration of glycinergic neurons in the isolated inspiratory pre-Bötzinger complex-driven network of the rhythmic slice preparation. Inspiratory (96%) and 'tonic' expiratory neurons (4%) were(More)
Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled(More)
Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) mediates host responses to gram-positive bacterial wall components. TLR2 function was investigated in a murine Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis model in wild-type (wt) and TLR2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) mice. TLR2(-/-) mice showed earlier time of death than wt mice (P<.02). Plasma interleukin-6 levels and bacterial numbers in(More)
Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of(More)
A controlled, periodic exchange of air between lungs and atmosphere requires a neuronal rhythm generated by a network of neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of the brainstem. Glial cells, e.g. astrocytes, have been shown to be supportive in stabilizing this neuronal activity in the central nervous system during development. In addition, a variety(More)
PURPOSE Altered PI3K/mTOR signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of breast cancers, including those resistant to hormonal and HER2-targeted therapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The activity of four classes of PI3K/mTOR inhibitory molecules, including a pan-PI3K inhibitor (NVP-BKM120), a p110α isoform-specific PI3K inhibitor (NVP-BYL719), an(More)
Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used for astrocyte identification, though the labeling mechanism remains unknown and the efficacy of labeling in different brain regions is heterogeneous. By combining region-specific isolation of astrocytes followed by transcriptome analysis, two-photon excitation microscopy, and mouse genetics, we identified the(More)
Both glycinergic and GABAergic neurons require the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) for synaptic vesicle filling. Presynaptic GABA concentrations are determined by the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67, whereas the presynaptic glycine content depends on the plasma membrane glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2).(More)
The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) participates in the signal transduction of various members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, including TNFR2, CD40, CD30, and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In vitro, TRAF1 is induced by LMP1, and previous studies have suggested that(More)