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Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled(More)
Neuronal activity in the respiratory network is functionally dependent on inhibitory synaptic transmission. Using two-photon excitation microscopy, we analyzed the integration of glycinergic neurons in the isolated inspiratory pre-Bötzinger complex-driven network of the rhythmic slice preparation. Inspiratory (96%) and 'tonic' expiratory neurons (4%) were(More)
Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of(More)
A controlled, periodic exchange of air between lungs and atmosphere requires a neuronal rhythm generated by a network of neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) of the brainstem. Glial cells, e.g. astrocytes, have been shown to be supportive in stabilizing this neuronal activity in the central nervous system during development. In addition, a variety(More)
Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used for astrocyte identification, though the labeling mechanism remains unknown and the efficacy of labeling in different brain regions is heterogeneous. By combining region-specific isolation of astrocytes followed by transcriptome analysis, two-photon excitation microscopy, and mouse genetics, we identified the(More)
Both glycinergic and GABAergic neurons require the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) for synaptic vesicle filling. Presynaptic GABA concentrations are determined by the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67, whereas the presynaptic glycine content depends on the plasma membrane glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2).(More)
Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed(More)
The neuronal network in the pre-Bötzinger Complex is the key element of respiratory rhythm generation. Isolated in a slice preparation, the pre-Bötzinger Complex network is still able to generate its inspiratory activity. Although the mechanism of rhythm generation in principle relies on glutamatergic neurons, interestingly we found that glycinergic neurons(More)
Given a family of intermediate Jacobians (for a polarized VHS of weight −1) on a Zariski-open subset of a complex manifold, we construct an analytic space that naturally extends the family. Its main property is that admissible normal functions without singularities extend to holomorphic sections; our space should therefore be considered as the identity(More)