Learn More
BACKGROUND Early environment is a major determinant of long-term mental health, evidenced by the relationship between early-life neglect or abuse and chronically increased vulnerability to developmental psychopathology, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Animal studies can increase understanding of environmentally mediated causal risk processes. We(More)
Neuronal activity in the respiratory network is functionally dependent on inhibitory synaptic transmission. Using two-photon excitation microscopy, we analyzed the integration of glycinergic neurons in the isolated inspiratory pre-Bötzinger complex-driven network of the rhythmic slice preparation. Inspiratory (96%) and 'tonic' expiratory neurons (4%) were(More)
Central to many emotional responses is the accompanying peripheral somatic and autonomic arousal, feedback from which has been hypothesized to enhance emotional memory and to contribute to appraisal processes and decision making, and dysfunction of which may contribute to antisocial behaviour. Whilst peripheral arousal may accompany both positive and(More)
Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the normal function of this large multidomain protein remain speculative. To address the role of this protein in vivo, we generated three different LRRK2 mutant mouse lines. Mice completely lacking the LRRK2(More)
Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of(More)
Experimental animal studies and epidemiological and clinical human studies demonstrate that atypical infant-caregiving can exert short- and long-term effects on offspring phenotype, including increased long-term risk of affective disorders. Whilst the early environment is therefore a major determinant of behavioral, physiological and neurobiological(More)
Under captive conditions common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show socially monogamous propensities. Male and female form a social bond as characterized by signs of behavioral arousal during separation of the pairmates, high levels of affiliative interactions between pairmates and agonistic responses towards strange conspecifics. In the present study(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis is a common finding in chronic inflammatory diseases; however, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. Central nervous system lesions from both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, contain T cells, macrophages and activated glia, which can produce pro-angiogenic factors. Previous EAE(More)
EphB4 and its cognitive ligand ephrinB2 play an important role in embryonic vessel development and vascular remodeling. In addition, several reports suggest that this receptor ligand pair is also involved in pathologic vessel formation in adults including tumor angiogenesis. Eph/ephrin signaling is a complex phenomena characterized by receptor forward(More)