Christian Schmidl

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Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to(More)
Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene(More)
Human blood monocytes comprise at least 3 subpopulations that differ in phenotype and function. Here, we present the first in-depth regulome analysis of human classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(+)CD16(+)), and nonclassical (CD14(dim)CD16(+)) monocytes. Cap analysis of gene expression adapted to Helicos single-molecule sequencing was used to map(More)
DNA methylation participates in establishing and maintaining chromatin structures and regulates gene transcription during mammalian development and cellular differentiation. With few exceptions, research thus far has focused on gene promoters, and little is known about the extent, functional relevance, and regulation of cell type-specific DNA methylation at(More)
The generation of myeloid cells from their progenitors is regulated at the level of transcription by combinatorial control of key transcription factors influencing cell-fate choice. To unravel the global dynamics of this process at the transcript level, we generated transcription profiles for 91 human cell types of myeloid origin by use of CAGE profiling.(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) human regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Here, we describe the promoterome of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) naïve and CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(-) memory Tregs and their CD25(-) conventional T-cell (Tconv) counterparts both before and after in vitro expansion by cap analysis of gene expression(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) are pivotal for peripheral self-tolerance. They prevent immune responses to auto- and alloantigens and are thus under close scrutiny as cellular therapeutics for autoimmune diseases and the prevention or treatment of alloresponses after organ or stem cell transplantation. We previously showed that human Treg(More)
Macrophages (MΦ) often accumulate in hypoxic areas, where they significantly influence disease progression. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, generate alternatively activated macrophages that support tumor growth. To understand how alternative activation affects the transcriptional profile of hypoxic macrophages, we globally mapped binding sites(More)
The transcription factor PU.1 is crucial for the development of many hematopoietic lineages and its binding patterns significantly change during differentiation processes. However, the 'rules' for binding or not-binding of potential binding sites are only partially understood. To unveil basic characteristics of PU.1 binding site selection in different cell(More)
Adiponectin protects the liver from steatosis caused by obesity or alcohol and therefore the influence of adiponectin on human hepatocytes was analyzed. GeneChip experiments indicated that recombinant adiponectin downregulates aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) expression and this was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot. AOX1 is a xenobiotic metabolizing(More)