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BACKGROUND Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants. METHODS We used data from 22 European(More)
Several studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants, but in most of theses studies linear nonthreshold relations were assumed. We investigated the exposure-response association between ambient particles and mortality in the 22 European cities participating in the APHEA (Air Pollution and Health--A(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of a school based physical activity programme during one school year on physical and psychological health in young schoolchildren. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING 28 classes from 15 elementary schools in Switzerland randomly selected and assigned in a 4:3 ratio to an intervention (n=16) or(More)
PURPOSE Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) resulting in decreased central vision severely impairs affected individuals. Current standard treatment is an intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy (ranibizumab), but responses to treatment show large variability. Genetic factors that influence AMD and that affect the outcome of ranibizumab treatment were(More)
BACKGROUND The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness and the concomitant pressure of schools to enhance cognitive performance. As the literature in young children is scarce, we examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. OBJECTIVES We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS We analyzed 15(More)
Functional connectivity (FC) and graph measures provide powerful means to analyze complex networks. The current study determines the inter-subject-variability using the coefficient of variation (CoV) and long-term test-retest-reliability (TRT) using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) in 44 healthy subjects with 35 having a follow-up at years 1(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown associations between mortality and long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Few cohort studies have estimated the effects of the elemental composition of particulate matter on mortality. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to study the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to elemental(More)
BACKGROUND Decreasing exposure to airborne particulates was previously associated with reduced age-related decline in lung function. However, whether the benefit from improved air quality depends on genetic background is not known. Recent evidence points to the involvement of the genes p53 and p21 and of the cell cycle control gene cyclin D1 (CCND1) in the(More)
BACKGROUND Active smoking has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but only few recent studies have shown environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to be associated with DM in never-smokers. We assessed the association between long term ETS exposure and DM, and explored effect modifications of this association in our sample. METHODS We analysed 6392(More)