Christian Schäfer

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BACKGROUND The enhanced vulnerability of women to develop alcohol-related diseases may be due to their higher blood alcohol levels after drinking, but the mechanism for this effect is debated. METHODS Sixty-five healthy volunteers of both genders drank 0.3 g of ethanol/kg of body weight (as 5%, 10%, or 40% solutions) postprandially. Blood alcohol(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to(More)
BACKGROUND There is still uncertainty about the management of pregnant women exposed to immunomodulatory therapy for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To assess the safety of interferon (IFN)-beta1a, IFN-beta1b, and glatiramer acetate (GA) for treatment of MS during pregnancy. METHODS A prospective observational cohort study(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The contribution of transport in the small intestine by the apically located efflux pump P-glycoprotein to variable drug absorption in humans is still poorly understood. We therefore investigated whether inhibition of intestinal P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux by quinidine leads to increased absorption of the P-glycoprotein(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE If there is insufficient bonding to the enamel, the shrinkage of composites that occurs during polymerization can result in a gap between the filling material and the cavity wall. This gap permits the passage of bacteria or their metabolic products and also of various molecules and ions. This leads to hypersensitivity or secondary(More)
A Monte Carlo algorithm is said to be adaptive if it automatically calibrates its current proposal distribution using past simulations. The choice of the parametric family that defines the set of proposal distributions is critical for good performance. In this paper, we present such a parametric family for adaptive sampling on high-dimensional binary(More)
Vascular alterations are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Despite the impact of endothelial dysfunction on microcirculatory properties, little is known about the endothelial cell alteration during the development of diabetes and its correlation to the metabolic situation. For that reason we continuously monitored in(More)
BACKGROUND With the exception of fungi, microbial infections are rare in the oesophagus. Herein, we aimed to systematically assess the distribution and quantity of different antimicrobial host factors as well as, for the first time, functional mucosal antimicrobial activity in the upper gastrointestinal tract. METHODS We investigated biopsies from the(More)
INTRODUCTION Recent trials have demonstrated benefit of prophylactic defibrillator (ICD) implantation compared to conventional treatment in high-risk patients. However, many patients have rare or no sustained arrhythmias following implantation. Our study addresses the question, whether patients with prophylactic defibrillator implantation have a lower risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a transdermal nicotine patch as an aid for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter setting. DESIGN Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 6-week duration with 18 weeks of follow-up. SETTING Four shopping mall precincts. PARTICIPANTS The randomized sample consisted of 802(More)