Christian Ryan Lee

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At least 70% of the afferents to substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons are GABAergic. The vast majority of these arise from the neostriatum, the external globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Nigral dopaminergic neurons express both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors, and are inhibited by local application of GABA(A) or GABA(B) agonists in(More)
The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability(More)
The regulation of intracellular chloride has important roles in neuronal function, especially by setting the magnitude and direction of the Cl- flux gated by GABA(A) receptors. Previous studies have shown that GABA(A)-mediated inhibition is less effective in dopaminergic than in GABAergic neurons in substantia nigra. We studied whether this phenomenon may(More)
The firing patterns of dopaminergic neurons in vivo are strongly modulated by afferent input. The principal GABAergic inputs to the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra originate from neurons of the neostriatum, globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. It has previously been shown that the firing pattern of nigral dopaminergic neurons(More)
Plateau potentials can be elicited in nigral GABAergic neurons by injection of 500 ms depolarizing current pulses from hyperpolarized holding potentials in whole-cell recordings in vitro. In approximately one-third of these neurons, plateau potentials were observed under control conditions and could be elicited in the remaining neurons after blocking(More)
Although substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons are spontaneously active both in vivo and in vitro, this activity does not depend on afferent input as these neurons express an endogenous calcium-dependent oscillatory mechanism sufficient to drive action potential generation. However, afferents to these neurons, a large proportion of them GABAergic and(More)
Insulin activates insulin receptors (InsRs) in the hypothalamus to signal satiety after a meal. However, the rising incidence of obesity, which results in chronically elevated insulin levels, implies that insulin may also act in brain centres that regulate motivation and reward. We report here that insulin can amplify action potential-dependent dopamine(More)
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are projection neurons that convey output from the basal ganglia to target structures. These neurons exhibit spontaneous regular firing, but also exhibit burst firing in the presence of NMDA or when excitatory glutamatergic input to the SNr is activated. Notably, an increase in burst firing is also(More)
We examined the somatodendritic compartment of nigral dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, with the aim of identifying proteins that participate in dopamine packaging and release. Nigral dopaminergic neurons were identified by location, cellular features and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Immunoreactive puncta of(More)
Evidence for the existence of different populations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons in the substantia nigra comes partially from anatomical studies, which have shown there to be little if any overlap between the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calretinin in individual neurons, suggesting that these may represent neuronal subtypes(More)