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The spatial distribution of ion channels in the cell plasma membrane has an important role in governing regional specialization, providing a precise and localized control over cell function. We report here a novel technique based on scanning ion conductance microscopy that allows, for the first time, mapping of single active ion channels in intact cell(More)
We report a novel scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) technique for assessing the volume of living cells, which allows quantitative, high-resolution characterization of dynamic changes in cell volume while retaining the cell functionality. The technique can measure a wide range of volumes from 10(-19) to 10(-9) liter. The cell volume, as well as the(More)
We have developed a hybrid scanning ion conductance and scanning near-field optical microscope for the study of living cells. The technique allows quantitative, high-resolution characterization of the cell surface and the simultaneous recording of topographic and optical images. A particular feature of the method is a reliable mechanism to control the(More)
Imaging of meniscal tissue reveals an extracellular matrix comprised of collagen fibrils arranged in circumferential bundles and radially aligned tie fibers, implicating structural material anisotropy. Biochemical analyses demonstrate regional disparities of proteoglycan content throughout the meniscal body, a constituent known to affect the shearing(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between a 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray energy spectrum outside the field edge near a phantom surface, and the corresponding spectrum on the central axis. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A was used to calculate the spectra on the central axis and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm from the edge of a 4 x 4 cm2, 10 x(More)
LiF:Mg:Cu:P thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) can be used for the same X-ray dosimetry applications as LiF:Mg:Ti, with each type having the disadvantage of a response dependent on energy, particularly at low energies. Measurements were made of the response per unit air kerma of LiF:Mg:Cu:P and LiF:Mg:Ti to nine quasi-monoenergetic X-ray beams with mean(More)
A metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), p-type semiconductor and a TLD can all be used for x-ray dosimetry, with each system having the common disadvantage of a response which is dependent upon the incident photon energy, particularly for energies < 1 MeV. A Pantak HF-320 quasi-monoenergetic x-ray unit was used to determine the(More)
The recent discussion and debate about the use of in vivo dosimetry as a routine component of the radiotherapy treatment process has not included the limitations introduced by the physical characteristics of the detectors. Although a robust calibration procedure will ensure acceptable uncertainties in the measurements of tumour dose, further work is(More)
A questionnaire was distributed in 2004 to 59 radiotherapy physics departments in the UK to determine whether in vivo dosimetry practice had changed since a similar survey conducted 10 years earlier. The number of centres carrying out central axis dosimetry had increased slightly from 17 centres in 1994 to 22 centres in 2004, with a diode alone being the(More)