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Left-right (LR) patterning is an intriguing but poorly understood process of bilaterian embryogenesis. We report a mechanism for LR patterning in C. elegans in which the embryo uncouples its midline from the anteroposterior (AP) axis. Specifically, the eight-cell embryo establishes a midline that is tilted rightward from the AP axis and positions more cells(More)
Cortical flows mediate anteroposterior polarization in Caenorhabditis elegans by generating two mutually exclusive membrane domains. However, factors downstream of anteroposterior polarity that establish the dorsoventral axis remain elusive. Here, we show that rotational cortical flow orthogonal to the anteroposterior axis during the division of the AB(More)
At the end of cytokinesis, the dividing cells are connected by an intercellular bridge, containing the midbody along with a single, densely ubiquitylated, circular structure called the midbody ring (MR). Recent studies revealed that the MR serves as a target site for membrane delivery and as a physical barrier between the prospective daughter cells. The MR(More)
The development of bilateral symmetry during the evolution of species probably 600 million years ago brought about several important innovations: It fostered efficient locomotion, streamlining and favored the development of a central nervous system through cephalization. However, to increase their functional capacities, many organisms exhibit chirality by(More)
BACKGROUND Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was(More)
Gastrulation is a key transition in embryogenesis; it requires self-organized cellular coordination, which has to be both robust to allow efficient development and plastic to provide adaptability. Despite the conservation of gastrulation as a key event in Metazoan embryogenesis, the morphogenetic mechanisms of self-organization (how global order or(More)
22 Over the past few decades, many researchers have concluded that adequately addressing issues in the knowledge society requires a major transformation of research, away from disengaged disciplines toward socially engaged, transdisciplinary approaches. To date, knowledge exchange between transdisciplinarity researchers via academic publications has been(More)
Autophagy can act either as a tumor suppressor or as a survival mechanism for established tumors. To understand how autophagy plays this dual role in cancer, in vivo models are required. By using a highly heterogeneous C. elegans germline tumor, we show that autophagy-related proteins are expressed in a specific subset of tumor cells, neurons. Inhibition of(More)