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This paper discusses the state of European research in historical climatology. This field of science and an overview of its development are described in detail. Special attention is given to the documentary evidence used for data sources, including its drawbacks and advantages. Further, methods and significant results of historical-climatological research,(More)
The paper examines the transmission mechanism of monetary policy in an open economy with and without a binding zero bound on nominal interest rates. In particular, a foolproof way of escaping from a liquidity trap is suggested, consisting of a price-level target path, a devaluation of the currency and a temporary exchange rate peg, which is later abandoned(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated the prognosis, risk factors and relevance of the primary-free interval in a large cohort with metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 120 patients with metachronous, bilateral renal cell carcinoma who were treated at 12 international academic centers. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess cancer-specific survival of partial nephrectomy (PN) patients with >or= 7-cm lesions or unfavorable pathology (stage T3a or Fuhrman grades III-IV). MATERIAL AND METHODS At 13 participation centers, 4072 partial or radical nephrectomies (RN) were performed for RCC between 1984 and 2001. Of all procedures, 925 (22.7%) were for tumors >(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify, in a large multicentre series of incidental renal tumours, the key factors that could predict cancer-related deaths, as such tumours have a better outcome than symptomatic tumours and selected patients are increasingly being included in watchful-waiting protocols. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data from 3912 patients were extracted from(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To identify predictive preoperative factors of the presence of teratoma in retroperitoneal lymph node dissection specimens. METHODS We performed a 20 years multicenter retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy (PC-RPLND). Patients had(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the effect of predictive factors for oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) for high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS A total of 813 patients underwent RP for high-risk PCa in a national retrospective multi-institutional study. High-risk PCa was defined as follows: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level>20 ng/mL,(More)
BACKGROUND The occurrence of positive surgical margins (PSMs) after partial nephrectomy (PN) is rare, and little is known about their natural history. OBJECTIVE To identify predictive factors of cancer recurrence and related death in patients having a PSM following PN. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Some 111 patients with a PSM were identified from a(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at risk of developing renal tumours. OBJECTIVE Compare clinical, pathologic, and outcome features of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) in ESRD patients and in patients from the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Twenty-four French university departments of urology participated in(More)
PURPOSE Predictive factors of T1 nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer evolution that could guide treatment decision making are lacking. We assessed the prognostic value of muscularis mucosa invasion in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a national multicenter study patients with primary T1 nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer were(More)