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OBJECTIVE For patients in intensive care units, sepsis is a common and potentially deadly complication and prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy improves prognosis. The objective of this trial was to determine whether a strategy of antimicrobial spectrum escalation, guided by daily measurements of the biomarker procalcitonin, could reduce(More)
BACKGROUND Seropositivity to food-borne and orofecal microorganisms (hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, and Toxoplasma gondii ), which are considered to be markers of poor hygiene, has been reported to be associated with a lower prevalence of atopy. In contrast, colonization of the gut with Clostridium difficile, a potential intestinal bacterial(More)
Plectasin is the first defensin-type antimicrobial peptide isolated from a fungus and has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. By using an experimental meningitis model, the penetration of plectasin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected and uninfected rabbits and the bactericidal activities in CSF of the plectasin variant NZ2114 and(More)
Using a monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay, the concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 52 patients suspected of having meningitis was studied. The CSF IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in septic meningitis of known and unknown etiology than in aseptic meningitis and significantly higher in aseptic meningitis(More)
OBJECTIVES Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates account for a fifth of cases of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Denmark, but little is known about treatment outcomes with penicillins or other antimicrobials. Here we compare penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime as definitive treatments in relation to 30 day mortality. METHODS A(More)
Hearing loss is a well-known sequelae from meningitis, affecting up to 25% of survivors. However, the principal components of the infectious and inflammatory reaction responsible for the sensorineural hearing loss remain to be identified. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of an augmented neutrophil response on the development of hearing loss(More)
A possible immunomodulatory role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was investigated in an experimental pneumococcal meningitis model in rabbits. Animals were pretreated with G-CSF (10 micrograms/kg subcutaneously twice a day) starting 48 h before in vivo and ex vivo experiments, causing a five- to six-fold increase in the peripheral leukocyte(More)
Moxifloxacin is a new 8-methoxyquinolone with high activity against gram-positive bacteria, including penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In an experimental meningitis model, we studied the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in infected and uninfected rabbits and evaluated the antibiotic efficacies of moxifloxacin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin against a(More)
BACKGROUND Bacteremia plays a major role in the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. This experimental study investigated how bacteremia influences the pathophysiologic profile of the brain. METHODS Rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were randomized to 1 of 3 groups of infected study rats: (1) rats with attenuated bacteremia resulting from(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS To examine the routes, dynamics and correlates of cochlear inflammation in meningitis to provide information on the pathogenesis of the associated hearing loss and indications for rational pharmacotherapeutical intervention. STUDY DESIGN A well-established rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. METHODS Eight(More)