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We determined the crystal structures of three nucleosome core particles in complex with site-specific DNA-binding ligands, the pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. While the structure of the histone octamer and its interaction with the DNA remain unaffected by ligand binding, nucleosomal DNA undergoes significant structural changes at the ligand-binding sites and(More)
The design and synthesis of a multivalent gold nanoparticle therapeutic is presented. SDC-1721, a fragment of the potent HIV inhibitor TAK-779, was synthesized and conjugated to 2.0 nm diameter gold nanoparticles. Free SDC-1721 had no inhibitory effect on HIV infection; however, the (SDC-1721)-gold nanoparticle conjugates displayed activity comparable to(More)
Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are synthetic ligands that bind in the minor groove of DNA. Previous studies have established that sites on nucleosomal DNA facing away from the histone octamer, or even partially facing the histone octamer, are fully accessible for molecular recognition by Py-Im polyamides, and that nucleosomes remain fully folded upon(More)
A second-generation library of 2-aminoimidazole-based derivatives incorporating a "reversed amide" (RA) motif in comparison to the marine natural product oroidin were synthesized and subsequently assayed for antibiofilm activity against the medically relevant Gram-negative proteobacteria P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Most notably, an in-depth activity(More)
Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in(More)
The host factor LSF represses the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) by mediating recruitment of histone deacetylase. We show that pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeted to the LTR can specifically block LSF binding both in vitro and within cells via direct access to chromatin, resulting in increased LTR expression.
The increasing prevalence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global health problem that has been exacerbated by the dearth of novel classes of antibiotics entering the clinic over the past 40 years. Herein, we describe recent developments toward combination therapies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. These(More)
The synthesis and biofilm inhibitory activity of a 30-member aryl amide 2-aminoimidazole library against the three biofilm forming Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii is presented. The most active compound identified inhibits the formation of E. coli biofilms with an IC(50) of 5.2 microM and was(More)
BACKGROUND The persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 within resting CD4+ T cells poses a daunting therapeutic challenge. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1, a chromatin-remodeling enzyme that can mediate gene silencing, is recruited to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat by the host transcription factor LSF. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides, small(More)