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We determined the crystal structures of three nucleosome core particles in complex with site-specific DNA-binding ligands, the pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. While the structure of the histone octamer and its interaction with the DNA remain unaffected by ligand binding, nucleosomal DNA undergoes significant structural changes at the ligand-binding sites and(More)
The design and synthesis of a multivalent gold nanoparticle therapeutic is presented. SDC-1721, a fragment of the potent HIV inhibitor TAK-779, was synthesized and conjugated to 2.0 nm diameter gold nanoparticles. Free SDC-1721 had no inhibitory effect on HIV infection; however, the (SDC-1721)-gold nanoparticle conjugates displayed activity comparable to(More)
Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are synthetic ligands that bind in the minor groove of DNA. Previous studies have established that sites on nucleosomal DNA facing away from the histone octamer, or even partially facing the histone octamer, are fully accessible for molecular recognition by Py-Im polyamides, and that nucleosomes remain fully folded upon(More)
Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in(More)
2-aminoimidazoles are an emerging class of small molecules that possess the ability to inhibit and disperse biofilms across bacterial order, class, and phylum. Herein, we report the synergistic effect between a 2-aminoimidazole/triazole conjugate and antibiotics toward dispersing preestablished biofilms, culminating with a 3-orders-of-magnitude increase of(More)
The increasing prevalence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global health problem that has been exacerbated by the dearth of novel classes of antibiotics entering the clinic over the past 40 years. Herein, we describe recent developments toward combination therapies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. These(More)
Infections caused by bacterial biofilms are a significant global health problem, causing considerable patient morbidity and mortality and contributing to the economic burden of infectious disease. This review describes diverse strategies to combat bacterial biofilms, focusing firstly on small molecule interference with bacterial communication and signaling(More)
The host factor LSF represses the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) by mediating recruitment of histone deacetylase. We show that pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeted to the LTR can specifically block LSF binding both in vitro and within cells via direct access to chromatin, resulting in increased LTR expression.
The synthesis and biofilm inhibitory activity of a 30-member aryl amide 2-aminoimidazole library against the three biofilm forming Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii is presented. The most active compound identified inhibits the formation of E. coli biofilms with an IC(50) of 5.2 microM and was(More)