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Infections are a leading cause of death in stroke patients. In a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia, we tested the hypothesis that a stroke-induced immunodeficiency increases the susceptibility to bacterial infections. 3 d after ischemia, all animals developed spontaneous septicemia and pneumonia. Stroke induced an extensive apoptotic loss of(More)
Sleep encompasses approximately a third of our lifetime, yet its purpose and biological function are not well understood. Without sleep optimal brain functioning such as responsiveness to stimuli, information processing, or learning may be impaired. Such observations suggest that sleep plays a crucial role in organizing or reorganizing neuronal networks of(More)
Stroke affects the normally well-balanced interplay of the 2 supersystems: the nervous and the immune system. Recent research elucidated some of the involved signals and mechanisms and, importantly, was able to demonstrate that brain-immune interactions are highly relevant for functional outcome after stroke. Immunodepression after stroke increases the(More)
UNLABELLED Infections are a leading cause of death in patients with acute CNS injury such as stroke. Recent experimental evidence indicated that stroke leads to suppression of innate and adaptive peripheral immune responses which predisposes to infection. However, less is known on phenotypic and functional immune alterations in correlation with the(More)
Infarction size and infections are important determinants of stroke outcome in humans. Bacterial infections are promoted by stroke-induced immunodeficiency which in experimental stroke is mainly characterized by extensive lymphocyte apoptosis and dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of caspases may improve stroke outcome not only by reducing apoptotic(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bacterial pneumonia is the most common cause of death in patients sustaining acute stroke and is believed to result from an increased aspiration. Recently, stroke-induced immunodeficiency was described in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia, which is primarily caused by overactivation of sympathetic nervous system. We tested if(More)
A characteristic feature of immunologic diseases is their association with each other. For multiple sclerosis (MS), several retrospective studies reported increased as well as expected coincidence rates with other immunologic diseases. We conducted a prospective case-control study of MS patients and healthy volunteers and found 13/101 MS patients and 2/97(More)
T1/ST2 is an orphan receptor of unknown function that is expressed on the surface of murine T helper cell type 2 (Th2), but not Th1 effector cells. In vitro blockade of T1/ST2 signaling with an immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein suppresses both differentiation to and activation of Th2, but not Th1 effector populations. In a nascent Th2-dominated response,(More)
Drainage of central nervous system (CNS) antigens to the brain-draining cervical lymph nodes (CLN) is likely crucial in the initiation and control of autoimmune responses during multiple sclerosis (MS). We demonstrate neuronal antigens within CLN of MS patients. In monkeys and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in mouse models(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE immunodepression after stroke is associated with complications like high infection rate, but its role in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is unclear. This pilot study aimed to assess the presence of immunodepression and its association with infections after aSAH. METHODS sixteen aSAH patients were enrolled in a prospective(More)