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BACKGROUND P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR1, confers multidrug resistance against antineoplastic agents but also plays an important role in the bioavailability of common drugs in medical treatment. Various polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene were recently identified. A silent mutation in exon 26 (C3435T) was correlated with intestinal P-glycoprotein(More)
Infections are a leading cause of death in stroke patients. In a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia, we tested the hypothesis that a stroke-induced immunodeficiency increases the susceptibility to bacterial infections. 3 d after ischemia, all animals developed spontaneous septicemia and pneumonia. Stroke induced an extensive apoptotic loss of(More)
AIMS The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 catalyses the 4'-hydroxylation of the nonsteroidal analgesic drug diclofenac in humans. We studied the influences of the known amino acid variants, CYP2C9*2 (Arg144Cys) and CYP2C9*3 (Ile359Leu), on diclofenac pharmacokinetics after a 50-mg oral dose of diclofenac in healthy volunteers. As a surrogate marker of(More)
OBJECTIVE According to in vitro data, the polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) may be the major S-ibuprofen hydroxylase. In humans, there are 2 variants of CYP2C9 with a high population frequency. We studied their impact on ibuprofen pharmacokinetics and on the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. METHODS Kinetics of an oral dose of 600 mg(More)
In-vitro data indicate major effects of the genetically polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) on the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug acting as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Human studies report decreased clearance in heterozygous carriers of the CYP2C9 variant Ile359Leu (*3), but results appeared(More)
RATIONALE Sustained sepsis-associated immunosuppression is associated with uncontrolled infection, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. OBJECTIVES In the first controlled biomarker-guided immunostimulatory trial in sepsis, we tested whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reverses monocyte deactivation, a hallmark of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bacterial pneumonia is the most common cause of death in patients sustaining acute stroke and is believed to result from an increased aspiration. Recently, stroke-induced immunodeficiency was described in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia, which is primarily caused by overactivation of sympathetic nervous system. We tested if(More)
Sleep encompasses approximately a third of our lifetime, yet its purpose and biological function are not well understood. Without sleep optimal brain functioning such as responsiveness to stimuli, information processing, or learning may be impaired. Such observations suggest that sleep plays a crucial role in organizing or reorganizing neuronal networks of(More)
INTRODUCTION In the treatment of heart failure and hypertension with metoprolol, ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs) may not achieve optimal target concentrations with recommended doses. We compared metoprolol pharmacokinetics and effects in UMs with extensive metabolizers (EMs) and with poor metabolizers (PM) as an additional reference group. METHODS After a(More)
Tolbutamide is known to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), and the effects of the CYP2C9 amino acid polymorphisms *2 (Arg144Cys) and *3 (Ile359Leu) could be important for drug treatment with tolbutamide and for use of tolbutamide as a CYP2C9 test drug. Tolbutamide pharmacokinetics and plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were studied in 23(More)