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BACKGROUND PCR has the potential to detect and precisely quantify specific DNA sequences, but it is not yet often used as a fully quantitative method. A number of data collection and processing strategies have been described for the implementation of quantitative PCR. However, they can be experimentally cumbersome, their relative performances have not been(More)
We aimed to determine whether human subjects' reliance on different sources of spatial information encoded in different frames of reference (i.e., egocentric versus allocentric) affects their performance, decision time and memory capacity in a short-term spatial memory task performed in the real world. Subjects were asked to play the Memory game (a.k.a. the(More)
Networks play a prominent role in the study of complex systems of interacting entities in biology, sociology, and economics. Despite this diversity, we demonstrate here that a statistical model decomposing networks into matching and centrality components provides a comprehensive and unifying quantification of their architecture. The matching term quantifies(More)
BACKGROUND Multiplex experimental assays coupled to computational predictions are being increasingly employed for the simultaneous analysis of many specimens at the genome scale, which quickly generates very large amounts of data. However, inferring valuable biological information from the comparisons of very large genomic datasets still represents an(More)
Gene transfer and expression in eukaryotes is often limited by a number of stably maintained gene copies and by epigenetic silencing effects. Silencing may be limited by the use of epigenetic regulatory sequences such as matrix attachment regions (MAR). Here, we show that successive transfections of MAR-containing vectors allow a synergistic increase of(More)
MOTIVATION Regulatory gene networks contain generic modules such as feedback loops that are essential for the regulation of many biological functions. The study of the stochastic mechanisms of gene regulation is instrumental for the understanding of how cells maintain their expression at levels commensurate with their biological role, as well as to engineer(More)
Organisms are known to adapt to regularly varying environments. However, in most cases, the fluctuations of the environment are irregular and stochastic, alternating between favorable and unfavorable regimes, so that cells must cope with an uncertain future. A possible response is population diversification. We assume here that the cell population is(More)