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The crystallographically determined structure of a soluble fragment from the major envelope protein of a flavivirus reveals an unusual architecture. The flat, elongated dimer extends in a direction that would be parallel to the viral membrane. Residues that influence binding of monoclonal antibodies lie on the outward-facing surface of the protein. The(More)
The flavivirus envelope protein E undergoes irreversible conformational changes at a mildly acidic pH which are believed to be necessary for membrane fusion in endosomes. In this study we used a combination of chemical cross-linking and sedimentation analysis to show that the envelope proteins of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus also change(More)
A quantitative study was performed to investigate the requirements for secretion of recombinant soluble and particulate forms of the envelope glycoprotein E of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Full-length E and a carboxy terminally truncated anchor-free form were expressed in COS cells in the presence and absence of prM, the precursor of the viral(More)
Envelope protein E of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus mediates membrane fusion, and the structure of the N-terminal 80% of this 496-amino-acid-long protein has been shown to differ significantly from that of other viral fusion proteins. The structure of the carboxy-terminal 20%, the stem-anchor region, is not known. It contains sequences that(More)
A model of the tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein E is presented that contains information on the structural organization of this flavivirus protein and correlates epitopes and antigenic domains to defined sequence elements. It thus reveals details of the structural and functional characteristics of the corresponding protein domains. The(More)
The sequences of the 3'-noncoding regions (NCR) of 12 strains of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus were analyzed and found to vary in length from 350 to approximately 750 nucleotides. The size heterogeneity is restricted to a variable region following the stop codon, whereas the most 3'-terminal 350 nucleotides form a highly conserved core element(More)
The flavivirus genome is a positive-strand RNA molecule containing a single long open reading frame flanked by noncoding regions (NCR) that mediate crucial processes of the viral life cycle. The 3' NCR of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus can be divided into a variable region that is highly heterogeneous in length among strains of TBE virus and in certain(More)
We have determined the virulence characteristics of seven monoclonal antibody escape mutants of tick-borne encephalitis virus in the mouse model. One of the mutants with an amino acid substitution from tyrosine to histidine at residue 384 revealed strongly reduced pathogenicity after peripheral inoculation of adult mice but retained its capacity to(More)
Recombinant subviral particles (RSPs) obtained by coexpression of the envelope (E) and premembrane (prM) proteins of tick-borne encephalitis virus in COS cells (S. L. Allison, K. Stadler, C. W. Mandl, C. Kunz, and F. X. Heinz, J. Virol. 69:5816-5820, 1995) were extensively characterized and shown to be ordered structures containing envelope glycoproteins(More)
Despite more than two decades of research and development on nucleic acid vaccines, there is still no commercial product for human use. Taking advantage of the recent innovations in systemic delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) using lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), we developed a self-amplifying RNA vaccine. Here we show that nonviral delivery of a 9-kb(More)