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Ammonium oxidation by autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is a key process in agricultural and natural ecosystems and has a large global impact. In the past, the ecology and physiology of AOB were not well understood because these organisms are notoriously difficult to culture. Recent applications of molecular techniques have advanced our knowledge(More)
We report the design and validation of new TaqMan((R)) assays for microbial source tracking based on the amplification of fecal 16S rRNA marker sequences from uncultured cells of the order Bacteroidales. The assays were developed for the detection and enumeration of non-point source input of fecal pollution to watersheds. The quantitative(More)
A quantitative real-time TaqMan PCR system for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage PP7 was designed to detect PP7 as surrogate in performance tests of 2 hollow fiber ultrafiltration systems in series. Fifty-six storm water samples from 21 sites representing agricultural, urban and highway locations in California were collected. The optimized procedure gave(More)
BACKGROUND The goals of this study were to develop and apply conventional (c) and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (Mhp), and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (Mhm) to blood samples of cats to determine the epidemiology of these infections in cats. HYPOTHESIS(More)
The Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a herpes-like virus now recognized as a worldwide cause of mortality among populations of koi Cyprinus carpio koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio. Temperature is a key factor influencing virus replication both in cell culture and in the tissues of experimentally infected fish. Genomic DNA sequences were used to optimize a(More)
We have developed real-time PCR systems to quantitate feline cytokine gene expression. The method is based on the cleavage of fluorescent dye-labelled probes by the 5'-3' exonuclease activity of the Taq DNA polymerase during PCR and measurement of fluorescence intensity by a Sequence Detection System. The feline-specific TaqMan probes were designed to(More)
We developed a rapid and highly reproducible assay based on real-time PCR (TaqMan, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) to quantitate simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA in plasma samples. This assay was compared with the current branched-chain DNA assay (Bayer, Emeryville, CA). Results obtained with the real-time TaqMan PCR assay were comparable to(More)
Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted disease of sheep and wild ruminants that is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). Cattle are asymptomatic reservoir hosts of BTV. Infection of lung microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) is central to the pathogenesis of BTV infection of both sheep and cattle, but it is uncertain as to why sheep are highly susceptible to(More)
Diagnostic methods were used to identify and quantify Myxobolus cerebralis, a myxozoan parasite of salmonid fish. In this study, 7-week-old, pathogen-free rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were experimentally infected with M. cerebralis and at 7 months postinfection were evaluated with 5 diagnostic assays: 1) pepsin-trypsin digest (PTD) to detect and(More)
A total of 1,667 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in Switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. The ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested PCR. Twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males,(More)