Christian M. Karsten

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Taken orally, the drug dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been shown to improve functional outcomes for patients with MS; however, it is unclear how DMF mediates a protective effect. DMF and, more so, its active metabolite, monomethyl fumarate, are known agonists of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA₂), a G protein-coupled membrane receptor. Here, we(More)
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-mediated activation of complement and IgG Fc receptors (FcγRs) are important defense mechanisms of the innate immune system to ward off infections. However, the same mechanisms can drive severe and harmful inflammation, when IgG antibodies react with self-antigens in solution or tissues, as described for several autoimmune diseases(More)
CD46 is a complement regulator with important roles related to the immune response. CD46 functions as a pathogen receptor and is a potent costimulator for the induction of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-secreting effector T helper type 1 (T(H)1) cells and their subsequent switch into interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory T cells. Here we identified the Notch(More)
Complement is an ancient danger-sensing system that contributes to host defense, immune surveillance and homeostasis. C5a and its G protein–coupled receptor mediate many of the proinflammatory properties of complement. Despite the key role of C5a in allergic asthma, autoimmune arthritis, sepsis and cancer, knowledge about its regulation is limited. Here we(More)
Thioredoxin (Trx)-1 is a small, ubiquitously expressed redox-active protein with known important cytosolic functions. However, Trx1 is also upregulated in response to various stress stimuli, is found both at the cell surface and secreted into plasma, and has known anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Previous animal studies have demonstrated that(More)
The vascular addressins mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin and ICAM-1 permit alpha(4)beta(7)-integrin-expressing DC, especially those of the myeloid lineage (CD11c(+)CD11b(+) DC), to access the pregnant mouse uterus. Injection of blocking monoclonal antibodies against mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in P-selectin(-/-) mice or(More)
C5a is a powerful proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediator as evidenced by its involvement in infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases as well as in cancer. C5a exerts most of its biologic functions through binding and activation of the G protein-coupled C5a receptor (C5aR). C5aR activation promotes complex signaling pathways eventually resulting(More)
Leukocyte recruitment to the pregnant mouse uterus is associated with highly regulated patterns of expression of vascular adhesion receptors. One striking observation is the localized expression of mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule (MADCAM1) and selectin, platelet (SELP, formerly P-selectin) by maternal vessels in the vascular zone (VZ)(More)
The pathways underlying dendritic cell (DC) activation in allergic asthma are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-pulsed wild-type (wt) but not of C5a receptor-deficient (C5aR⁻/⁻) bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs (BMDCs) induced mixed T helper type 2 (Th2)/Th17 maladaptive immunity, associated with severe airway(More)
Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) produce neuropeptides, which are crucially involved in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier. Hence, EEC dysfunction is suggested to be involved in the complex pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by decreased intestinal barrier function. However, the underlying mechanisms for EEC(More)