Christian Münz

Learn More
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
CD4+ T cells classically recognize antigens that are endocytosed and processed in lysosomes for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Here, endogenous Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) was found to gain access to this pathway by autophagy. On inhibition of lysosomal acidification, EBNA1, the dominant CD4+ T(More)
Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality every year and threatening the human population with epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of this virus to develop strategies to control its pathogenicity. Here, we demonstrate that influenza A virus inhibits macroautophagy,(More)
The predisposition of individuals to several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis, is genetically linked to certain human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low(More)
During the innate response to many inflammatory and infectious stimuli, dendritic cells (DCs) undergo a differentiation process termed maturation. Mature DCs activate antigen-specific naive T cells. Here we show that both immature and mature DCs activate resting human natural killer (NK) cells. Within 1 wk the NK cells increase two-- to fourfold in numbers,(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present products of lysosomal proteolysis to CD4(+) T cells. Although extracellular antigen uptake is considered to be the main source of MHC class II ligands, a few intracellular antigens have been described to gain access to MHC class II loading after macroautophagy. However, the general relevance(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to induce the growth and function of natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we address the capacity of DCs to interact with NK cells in human lymphoid organs and identify the role of specific DC-derived cytokines. We demonstrate that DCs colocalize with NK cells in the T cell areas of lymph nodes. In culture, DCs from either blood(More)
Many pathogens that cause human disease infect only humans. To identify the mechanisms of immune protection against these pathogens and also to evaluate promising vaccine candidates, a small animal model would be desirable. We demonstrate that primary T cell responses in mice with reconstituted human immune system components control infection with the(More)
Natural killer cells are important cytolytic cells in innate immunity. We have characterized human NK cells of spleen, lymph nodes, and tonsils. More than 95% of peripheral blood and 85% of spleen NK cells are CD56(dim)CD16(+) and express perforin, the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp30 and NKp46, as well as in part killer cell Ig-like receptors(More)
Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that patients with multiple sclerosis are almost universally infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and that the risk of developing the disease increases with the level of EBV-specific antibody titers. The EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) maintains the viral episome in replicating infected human B cells,(More)