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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with microdissection probes from human chromosomes 3 and 6 was applied to visualize arm and subregional band domains in human amniotic fluid cell nuclei. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitative three-dimensional image analysis showed a pronounced variability of p- and q-arm domain arrangements and(More)
Human interphase chromosomes were simulated as a flexible fiber with excluded volume interaction, which represents the chromatin fiber of each chromosome. For the higher-order structures, we assumed a folding into 120 kb loops and an arrangement of these loops into rosette-like subcompartments. Chromosomes consist of subcompartments connected by small(More)
A number of structural and functional subnuclear compartments have been described, including regions exclusive of chromosomes previously hypothesized to form a reactive nuclear space. We have now explored this accessible nuclear space and interchromosomal nucleoplasmic domains experimentally using Xenopus vimentin engineered to contain a nuclear(More)
Progress in fluorescence in situ hybridization, three dimensional microscopy and image analysis has provided the means to study the three-dimensional structure and distribution of chromosome territories within the cell nucleus. In this contribution, we summarize the present state of knowledge of the territorial organization of interphase chromosomes and(More)
RATIONALE Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins for the TNF/interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor superfamily. Ligands of this family comprise multiple important cytokines such as TNFα, CD40L, and interleukin-1β that promote chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. We recently reported(More)
CD40L figures prominently in atherogenesis. Recent data demonstrate elevated levels of sCD40L in the serum of patients with the metabolic syndrome (MS). This study investigated the role of CD40L in pro-inflammatory gene expression and cellular differentiation in adipose tissue to obtain insight into mechanisms linking the MS with atherosclerosis. Human(More)
BACKGROUND Members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, potently promote atherogenesis in mice and humans. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins for this group of cytokines. METHODS AND RESULTS This study tested the hypothesis that TRAF1 modulates atherogenesis(More)
Various models for the nuclear architecture in interphase cell nuclei have been presented, proposing a territorial or a non-territorial organization of chromosomes. To better understand the correlation between nuclear architecture and the formation of chromosomal aberrations, we applied computer simulations to model the extent of radiation induced(More)