Christian Lengeler

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BACKGROUND Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in many parts of the world, especially in Africa. There has been a renewed emphasis on preventive measures, both at community and at individual level. Insecticide treated bednets and curtains are a promising preventive measure. OBJECTIVES The objective of this review was to assess the effects(More)
Indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) mainly with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was the principal method by which malaria was eradicated or greatly reduced in many countries in the world between the 1940s and 1960s. In sub-Saharan Africa early malarial eradication pilot projects also showed that malaria is highly responsive to vector control by IRS(More)
BACKGROUND Primary malaria prevention on a large scale depends on two vector control interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Historically, IRS has reduced malaria transmission in many settings in the world, but the health effects of IRS have never been properly quantified. This is important, and will help(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) represent a practical means to prevent malaria in Africa, so scaling up coverage to at least 80% of young children and pregnant women by 2010 is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).(More)
The communities of Namawala and Idete villages in southern Tanzania experienced extremely high malaria transmission in the 1990s. By 2001-03, following high usage rates (75% of all age groups) of untreated bed nets, a 4.2-fold reduction in malaria transmission intensity was achieved. Since 2006, a national-scale programme has promoted the use of(More)
A community-based randomized, controlled trial of permethrin impregnated bednets was carried out in a rural area of northern Ghana, between July 1993 and June 1995, to assess the impact on the mortality of young children in an area of intense transmission of malaria and no tradition of bednet use. The district around Navrongo was divided into 96(More)
An entomological study on vectors of malaria and their relative contribution to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the semi-urban area of Ifakara, south-eastern Tanzania, was conducted. A total of 32 houses were randomly sampled from the area and light trap catches (LTC) performed in one room in each house every 2 weeks for 1 year. A total of 147 448(More)
BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change.(More)
BACKGROUND Cost-sharing schemes incorporating modest targeted subsidies have promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania, since 1996. Here we evaluate resulting changes in bednet coverage and malaria transmission. METHODS Bednets were sold through local agents at fixed prices representing a(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large-scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high(More)