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CD20 is an important target for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as autoimmune disorders. B-cell depletion therapy using monoclonal antibodies against CD20, such as rituximab, has revolutionized the treatment of these disorders, greatly improving overall survival in patients. Here, we report the development of(More)
Endothelial tip cells guide angiogenic sprouts by exploring the local environment for guidance cues such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VegfA). Here we present Flt1 (Vegf receptor 1) loss- and gain-of-function data in zebrafish showing that Flt1 regulates tip cell formation and arterial branching morphogenesis. Zebrafish embryos expressed soluble(More)
We describe a generic approach to assemble correctly two heavy and two light chains, derived from two existing antibodies, to form human bivalent bispecific IgG antibodies without use of artificial linkers. Based on the knobs-into-holes technology that enables heterodimerization of the heavy chains, correct association of the light chains and their cognate(More)
We report the first preclinical in vitro and in vivo comparison of GA101 (obinutuzumab), a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 monoclonal antibody, with rituximab and ofatumumab, the two currently approved type I CD20 antibodies. The three antibodies were compared in assays measuring direct cell death (AnnexinV/PI staining and time-lapse microscopy),(More)
Therapeutic Abs possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action including perturbation of tumor cell signaling, activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and induction of adaptive immunity. In view of the important role of phagocytic lineage cells in the(More)
Expression of a variety of ABC efflux pumps including certain conjugate transporters of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) subfamily is inducible in primate and rodent tissues, and in a variety of cell lines and primary cells in culture. In human cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7), we studied the inducibility of MRPs 1-5. Similar to the rat mrp2 gene, human mrp2(More)
Deregulation of the ErbB (proto-oncogene B of the avian erythroblastosis virus AEV-H strain) receptor network is well recognized as an oncogenic driver in epithelial cancers. Several targeted drugs have been developed, including antibodies and small-molecule kinase inhibitors, each of them characterized by distinct patterns of ErbB receptor interactions.(More)
Angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) is a key regulator of angiogenesis that exerts context-dependent effects on ECs. ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the responsiveness of ECs to exogenous cytokines. Recent data from tumors indicate(More)
The tumour suppressor p53 is a transcription factor with powerful antitumour activity that is controlled by its negative regulator MDM2 (mouse double minute 2, also termed HDM2 in humans) through a feedback mechanism. MDM2, which is overproduced in many tumours, binds p53 and inhibits its function by modulating its transcriptional activity and stability.(More)
The human tumor suppressor protein p53 is understood only to some extent on a structural level. We performed a comprehensive biochemical and biophysical structure-function analysis of p53 full-length protein and p53 fragments. The analysis showed that p53 and the fragments investigated form stable functional units. Full-length p53 and the tetrameric(More)