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A synthetic fluorinated humic acid (FHA) was prepared by the spontaneous oxidative polymerization of 3-fluorocatechol. The 13C-solid-state NMR spectrum showed signals in the region for aromatic carbons with different substituents (aryl-H, aryl-C, aryl-O carbons) and for carboxyl-carbon. The latter indicated the formation of carboxylic groups, probably(More)
Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) prepared by a precipitation route was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns of the elongated nanocrystals with a typical diameter of about 10 nm and length of 30-50 nm (by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) revealed the presence of HAp with significantly broadened XRD reflections. However, Ca(More)
We reveal that the aragonite CaCO3 platelets in nacre of Haliotis laevigata are covered with a continuous layer of disordered amorphous CaCO3 and that there is no protein interaction with this layer. This finding contradicts classical paradigms of biomineralization, e.g., an epitaxial match between the structural organic matrix and the formed mineral. This(More)
The cellulose model compound methyl 4-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6) was synthesised in high overall yield from methyl beta-D-cellobioside. The compound was crystallised from methanol to give colourless prisms, and the crystal structure was determined. The monoclinic space group is P2(1) with Z=2 and unit cell parameters(More)
Structuring over many length scales is a design strategy widely used in Nature to create materials with unique functional properties. We here present a comprehensive analysis of an adult sea urchin spine, and in revealing a complex, hierarchical structure, show how Nature fabricates a material which diffracts as a single crystal of calcite and yet fractures(More)
The amount of grafted poly(acrylic acid) on poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanoparticles was quantified by conductometry, (13)C solid-state NMR, fluorophore labeling, a supramolecular assay based on high-affinity binding of cucurbit[7]uril, and two colorimetric assays based on toluidine blue and nickel complexation by pyrocatechol violet. The methods(More)
Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silicon-containing hydroxyapatite (SiHAp) particles were synthesized by a wet-chemical procedure and their heterogeneous structures involving a disordered phase were analyzed in detail by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and solid-state(More)
The rational design of nano- and micrometer-sized particles with tailor-made optical properties for biological, diagnostic, and photonic applications requires tools to characterize the signal-relevant properties of these typically scattering bead suspensions. This includes methods for the preferably nondestructive quantification of the number of(More)
Hydrogen bonding is important in cellulosic and other carbohydrate structures, but the role of interactions between nonpolar groups is less understood. Therefore, we synthesized cyclohexyl 4'-O cyclohexyl beta-D-cellobioside (8), a molecule that has two glucose rings and two nonpolar cyclohexyl rings. Key to attaching the 4'-Ocyclohexyl group was making the(More)