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A genome-wide association (GWA) study with pooled DNA in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) employing approximately 500K SNP markers identifies novel risk genes and reveals remarkable overlap with findings from recent GWA scans in substance use disorders. Comparison with results from our previously reported high-resolution linkage scan in(More)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a very high heritability (0.8), suggesting that about 80% of phenotypic variance is due to genetic factors. We used the integration of statistical and functional approaches to discover a novel gene that contributes to ADHD. For our statistical approach, we started with a linkage study based on large(More)
We present the Genetic L-System Programming (GLP) paradigm for evolutionary creation and development of parallel rewrite systems (L-systems, Lindenmayer-systems) which provide a commonly used formalism to describe developmental processes of natural organisms. The L-system paradigm will be extended for the purpose of describing time-and context-dependent(More)
In previous studies of a genetic isolate, we identified significant linkage of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to 4q, 5q, 8q, 11q and 17p. The existence of unique large size families linked to multiple regions, and the fact that these families came from an isolated population, we hypothesized that two-locus interaction contributions to ADHD(More)
BACKGROUND Dysfunctional reward processing, accompanied by a limited ability to tolerate reward delays, has been proposed as an important feature in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brain activation in adult patients with ADHD (n=14) and healthy control subjects (n=12) was(More)
Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter thought to play important roles in several behavioral domains. On a neurobiological level, NO acts as the second messenger of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and interacts with both the dopaminergic as well as the serotonergic system. Thus, NO is a promising candidate molecule in the pathogenesis of(More)
BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disease that persists into adulthood in at least 30% of patients. There is evidence suggesting that abnormal left-right brain asymmetries in ADHD patients may be involved in a variety of ADHD-related cognitive processes, including sustained attention, working(More)
INTRODUCTION In this study, the neural correlates of error processing in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are to be investigated for the first time. Recent studies in children with ADHD suggested, with some inconsistencies, deficits in error processing. Based on an analogue study with students, we hypothesized that ADHD(More)