Christian J Wilson

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Pharmaceuticals have been reported in surface waters, prompting legitimate public concern, as pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds used daily by the public. Currently there are ecotoxicological data available for <1%, thus, the European Union Commission's Scientific committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and Environment (CSTEE) recommended use of(More)
The risks associated with occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water resources are mostly unknown. In the absence of extensive toxicological data, we scanned all the compounds observed in the environment for toxicological properties by (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR). The results of the probabilistic distribution of environmental and(More)
The persistence of eight pharmaceuticals from multiple classes was studied in aquatic outdoor field microcosms. A method was developed for the determination of a mixture of acetaminophen, atorvastatin, caffeine, carbamazepine, levofloxacin, sertraline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim at microg/L levels from surface water of the microcosms using solid(More)
Sediment quality was assessed in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, using a two-tiered approach in which 111 sites were initially screened for sediment toxicity. Sites exhibiting toxicity were then resampled and analyzed for chemical contamination, recurrent toxicity, and, in some cases, benthic community impacts. Resulting data were compared with newly(More)
Four different classes of environmental concern are quantitatively and qualitatively assessed for environmental hazards; antibiotics (n = 226), antineoplastics (n = 81), cardiovascular (n = 272), and sex hormones (n = 92). These along with an ECOSAR scan of all pharmaceuticals (n = 2848) were then classified according to the OECD aquatic toxicity(More)
The exposure and fate of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was evaluated using modeled predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) according to the U.S. and the European Union (EU) guidelines and microcosm model ecosystems. According to the U.S. guidance, crude environmental introduction concentrations, the only SSRI that would require(More)
Sediment quality in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbor area of southern California, USA, was assessed from 1992 to 1997 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board's Bay Protection and Toxic Cleanup Program and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program. The assessment strategy relied on(More)
Mean sediment quality guideline quotients (mean SQGQs) were developed to represent the presence of chemical mixtures in sediments and are derived by normalizing a suite of chemicals to their respective numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Mean SQGQs incorporate the number of SQGs exceeded and the degree to which they are exceeded and are used for(More)
Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the cultural characteristics of salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) from Atlantic salmon (AS, Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (RT, Oncorhynchus mykiss), particularly in relation to cell line and temperature. In an initial study, SAV was isolated from 12 viraemic sera and passaged in Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214)(More)
A mixture of four tetracyclines; oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), tetracycline (TC), and doxycycline (DC) was applied in fifteen 12000l outdoor microcosms at four treatment levels plus controls each with three replicates (n = 3). The dissipation times of parent compounds were monitored and half-lives (DT50) of 1-4 days, depending on treatment(More)