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The phenolamines tyramine and octopamine are decarboxylation products of the amino acid tyrosine. Although tyramine is the biological precursor of octopamine, both compounds are independent neurotransmitters, acting through various G-protein coupled receptors. Especially, octopamine modulates a plethora of behaviors, peripheral and sense organs. Both(More)
A diffusion-based microreactor system operated with a reaction volume of 8 μL is presented and characterized to intensify the process understanding in microscale cultivations. Its potential as screening tool for biological processes is evaluated. The advantage of the designed microbioreactor is the use for the continuous cultivation mode by integrating(More)
Paralogs for several proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disorders have been identified and explored to further facilitate the identification of molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathogenesis. For the disease-causing protein in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, ataxin-2, a paralog of unknown function, termed ataxin-2-like, has been described.(More)
We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS(More)
Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system is essential for the elimination of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to adapt to ER stress. It has been reported that the AAA ATPase p97/VCP/CDC48 is required in this pathway for protein dislocation across the ER membrane and subsequent ubiquitin dependent degradation by(More)
The antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil is a widely used chemotherapeutic for the treatment of several solid cancers. However, resistance to 5-fluorouracil remains a major drawback in its clinical use. In this study we report that treatment of HeLa cells with 5-fluorouracil resulted in de novo assembly of stress granules. Moreover, we revealed that stress granule(More)
Alternative splicing is a fundamental posttranscriptional mechanism for controlling gene expression, and splicing defects have been linked to various human disorders. The splicing factor FOX-2 is part of a main protein interaction hub in a network related to human inherited ataxias, however, its impact remains to be elucidated. Here, we focused on the(More)
PITX1 is a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor implicated in vertebrate hindlimb development. Recently, mutations in PITX1 have been associated with autosomal-dominant clubfoot. In addition, one affected individual showed a polydactyly and right-sided tibial hemimelia. We now report on PITX1 deletions in two fetuses with a high-degree(More)
Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the(More)
Here we demonstrate the generation of polymer monolithic surfaces possessing a gradient of pore and polymer globule sizes from ~0.1 to ~0.5 μm defined by the composition of two polymerization mixtures injected into a microfluidic chip. To generate the gradient, we used a PDMS microfluidic chip with a cascade micromixer with a subsequent reaction chamber for(More)