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OBJECTIVE To investigate the levels of the T helper (Th)17-related cytokines interleukin 17A (IL-17A), IL-21, and IL-23 and their association with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS In a longitudinal sample set from patients with early RA (< 6 months; n = 40), we measured the plasma cytokine levels of IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-23 and(More)
We construct an accurate error estimate for the root mean square force error of the smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) algorithm, which is often used for molecular dynamics simulations, where charge configurations under periodic boundary conditions require considerable amounts of CPU time. The error estimates are provided for the ik- as well as analytical(More)
We describe a new program package that is designed to perform numerical Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a broad class of soft matter systems in a parallel computing environment. Our main concept in developing ESPResSo was to provide a user friendly and fast simulation tool which serves at the same time as a research platform(More)
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production(More)
TLR3 and TLR9 recognize the pathogen-associated microbial patterns dsRNA and unmethylated DNA, respectively. The recent discovery that these receptors also recognize endogenous ligands from necrotic material has drawn increased attention to their involvement in autoimmunity. Th cell cytokines IL-17A and IL-21 have been assigned with pivotal roles in the(More)
We study by Langevin molecular dynamics simulations systematically the influence of polydispersity in the particle size, and subsequently in the dipole moment, on the physical properties of ferrofluids. The polydispersity is in a first approximation modeled by a bidisperse system that consists of small and large particles at different ratios of their volume(More)
We investigate a system consisting of two like-charged infinitely long rods and neutralizing counterions at low temperatures, using both analytic theory and simulations. With some reasonable approximations we can analytically solve for several ground-state structures of the model, starting with states where all counterions are lined up in the gap between(More)
Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at(More)