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Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock induces profound changes in the physiologic processes of many tissues and activates inflammatory cascades that include the activation of stress transcriptional factors and upregulation of cytokine synthesis. This process is accompanied by acute organ damage (e.g., lungs and liver). We have previously demonstrated that(More)
BACKGROUND Because of the relatively large surface area of metaphyseal cancellous bone, the majority of distal femur fractures heal reliably. Nonunions of the distal femur do rarely occur, however, and the associated bone loss and soft tissue scarring can make successful treatment difficult. Few reports in the literature exist regarding the clinical and(More)
BACKGROUND Delayed union or nonunion of a fracture of the humerus is an infrequent but debilitating complication. Open reduction and internal fixation combined with autologous bone-grafting can result in reliable healing of the fracture; however, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site. This study was designed to evaluate healing of(More)
BACKGROUND Aim of this study was to evaluate prognosis of severely injured patients. METHODS All severely injured patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 50 were identified in a 6-year-period between 2000 and 2005 in German Level 1 Trauma Center Murnau. Data was evaluated from German Trauma Registry and Polytrauma Outcome Chart of the German(More)
In hemorrhagic shock (HS), increased cytokine production contributes to tissue inflammation and injury through the recruitment of neutrophils [polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)]. HS stimulates the early expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that modulates proinflammatory activation after hemorrhage. Experiments were performed to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative ileus is a poorly understood surgical problem characterized by leukocyte extravasation into the intestinal muscularis and suppression in muscle function. The study objective was to delineate a mechanistic inflammatory cascade initiated by intestinal manipulation. METHODS ACI and Sprague-Dawley rats, and IL-6 +/+ and IL-6 -/- mice(More)
BACKGROUND The use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters for prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in high-risk trauma patients is well accepted. High rates of recurrent venous thrombosis, however, and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) have been reported in nonsurgical patients with medical comorbidities. Patients with pelvic trauma and thromboembolic disease(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate a standardized method of treatment of femoral nonunion of the isthmal femur excluding non-united metaphyseal fractures. METHODS Between 2003 and 2010, 72 consecutive patients with nonunion of the femoral shaft were operated using a standardized protocol in our trauma department and followed up for(More)
The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB contributes to the dysfunctional inflammatory response accompanying resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS), in part through induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-6. In previous studies, we demonstrated that G-CSF and IL-6(More)