Christian Helmers

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Patent pools, which allow firms to combine separately owned patents, are expected to strengthen incentives for R&D by reducing litigation risks and license fees. But pools may also weaken incentives by creating high levels of effective concentration in an industry. This paper takes advantage of a window of regulatory tolerance under the New Deal to examine(More)
A surprisingly small number of innovative firms use the patent system. In the UK, the share of firms patenting among those reporting that they have innovated is about 4%. Survey data from the same firms support the idea that they do not consider patents or other forms of registered IP as important as informal IP for protecting inventions. We show that there(More)
This paper identifies the effect of neighborhood peer groups on childhood skill acquisition using observational data. We incorporate spatial peer interaction, defined as a child's nearest geographical neighbors, into a production function of child cognitive development in Andhra Pradesh, India. Our peer group construction takes the form of directed(More)
We survey the economic literature, both theoretical and empirical, on the choice of intellectual property protection by firms. Our focus is on the tradeoffs between using patents and disclosing versus the use of secrecy, although we also look briefly at the use of other means of formal intellectual property protection. Disclaimer: This work contains(More)
Global climate change mitigation will require the development and diffusion of a large number and variety of new technologies. How will patent protection affect this process? In this paper we first review the evidence on the role of patents for innovation and international technology transfer in general. The literature suggests that patent protection in a(More)
This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 90 inventions contributed by major multinational innovators to the " Eco-Patent Commons " , which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented innovations on green technologies. We compare the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same multinationals to(More)
You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. are in applied econometrics with a special focus on(More)
Patent pools, which allow competing firms to combine their patents, have emerged as a prominent tool to resolve crippling risks of litigation when multiple firms own patents for the same technology. This paper takes advantage of a window of regulatory tolerance under the New Deal to investigate the effects of pools that would form in the absence of(More)
We evaluate the impact of firm-specific export subsidies on exports in Colombia. Using a two-stage Heckman selection procedure, we obtain firm-specific predicted subsidy amounts that can be explained by the characteristics that determine the firms' eligibility for the government support and its amount. Drawing on the accounts of the discretionary allocation(More)