Christian H. Reich

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X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is(More)
X-ray lasers offer new capabilities in understanding the structure of biological systems, complex materials and matter under extreme conditions. Very short and extremely bright, coherent X-ray pulses can be used to outrun key damage processes and obtain a single diffraction pattern from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and(More)
Phosphotyrosine and protein tyrosine phosphatase antibodies have been used to assess the distribution and potential functions of tyrosine phosphorylation systems in normal brain and cell cultures, as well as in a model of neural degeneration. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that a panel of antiphosphotyrosine antibodies recognizing(More)
We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs(More)
The morphology of micrometre-size particulate matter is of critical importance in fields ranging from toxicology to climate science, yet these properties are surprisingly difficult to measure in the particles' native environment. Electron microscopy requires collection of particles on a substrate; visible light scattering provides insufficient resolution;(More)
Protein crystallization in cells has been observed several times in nature. However, owing to their small size these crystals have not yet been used for X-ray crystallographic analysis. We prepared nano-sized in vivo-grown crystals of Trypanosoma brucei enzymes and applied the emerging method of free-electron laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography(More)
X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center(More)
Immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the distribution of the proline-directed kinase, cdc2, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. A robust signal was most prominent in the neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) of affected neurons that also contained abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Biochemical analysis identified a pool of cdc2 in bovine brain(More)
Depending on sequence, bacterial and synthetic DNAs can activate the host immune system and influence the host response to infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the abilities of various phosphorothioate oligonucleotides with cytosine-guanosine-containing motifs (CpG DNA) to activate macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin(More)