Christian Grund

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In spring 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 was detected in Germany in 343 dead wild birds, as well as in a black swan (Cygnus atratus) kept in a zoo, three stray cats, one stone marten (Martes foina), and in a single turkey farm. In 2007 (June-July) the virus reoccurred in 96 wild birds at six geographically separate(More)
Many experiments indicate that most individuals are not purely motivated by material self interest, but also care about the well being of others. In this paper we examine tournaments among inequity averse agents, who dislike disadvantageous inequity (envy) and advantageous inequity (compassion). It turns out that inequity averse agents exert higher effort(More)
In Germany, two distinct episodes of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1) in wild birds occurred at the beginning of 2006, and in summer 2007. High local densities of wild bird populations apparently sparked clinically detectable outbreaks. However, these remained restricted in (i) number of birds, (ii) species(More)
The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV(More)
A consensus primer PCR approach was used to (i) investigate the presence of herpesviruses in wild and zoo equids (zebra, wild ass, tapir) and to (ii) study the genetic relationship of the herpesvirus of pigeons (columbid herpesvirus 1) to other herpesvirus species. The PCR assay, based on degenerate primers targeting highly conserved regions of the DNA(More)
The poultry populations of Egypt are endemically infected by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1. Vaccination was chosen as an auxiliary tool to control HPAIV in poultry. Potency of commercial vaccines regarding emerging variants is under discussion. In the current study efficacy of four different inactivated whole H5 virus(More)
It is almost a decade since the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) of clade 2.2.1 was introduced to Egypt in 2005, most likely, via wild birds; marking the longest endemic status of influenza viruses in poultry outside Asia. The endemic A/H5N1 in Egypt still compromises the poultry industry, poses serious hazards to public health and(More)
Sequence analysis of the endoproteolytic cleavage site within the hemagglutinin (HA) precursor protein HA(0) is fundamental for studies of the molecular biology of influenza A viruses, in particular, for molecular pathotyping of subtype H5 and H7 isolates. A current problem for routine diagnostics is the emergence of new strains of the H5 or H7 subtype or(More)
A distinct cluster of highly pathogenic avian influenzaviruses of subtype A(H5N1) has been found to emergewithin clade in poultry in Egypt since summer2014 and appears to have quickly become predominant.Viruses of this cluster may be associated withincreased incidence of human influenza A(H5N1) infectionsin Egypt over the last months.