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Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of the institute. Research disseminated by IZA may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between(More)
Sequence analysis of the endoproteolytic cleavage site within the hemagglutinin (HA) precursor protein HA(0) is fundamental for studies of the molecular biology of influenza A viruses, in particular, for molecular pathotyping of subtype H5 and H7 isolates. A current problem for routine diagnostics is the emergence of new strains of the H5 or H7 subtype or(More)
The poultry populations of Egypt are endemically infected by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1. Vaccination was chosen as an auxiliary tool to control HPAIV in poultry. Potency of commercial vaccines regarding emerging variants is under discussion. In the current study efficacy of four different inactivated whole H5 virus(More)
It is almost a decade since the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) of clade 2.2.1 was introduced to Egypt in 2005, most likely, via wild birds; marking the longest endemic status of influenza viruses in poultry outside Asia. The endemic A/H5N1 in Egypt still compromises the poultry industry, poses serious hazards to public health and(More)
Influenza A viruses are maintained as a quasispecies cloud in several natural host reservoirs of avian as well as mammalian species. Accidental host exposure, selection and further adaptation of individual influenza A viruses during sporadic trans-species transmission may eventually lead to the establishment of new, stably circulating lineages in a new,(More)
For raising pigeons free of herpes virus infection, 12 parental pigeons were monitored for shedding of pigeon herpes virus (PHV) during 18 weeks of reproduction. In most of the birds only a sporadic virus excretion, which was never associated with clinical signs could be observed. However, three out of seven squabs raised by their parents became infected(More)
Real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (real-time RT-LAMP) holds substantial potential as a highly sensitive, specific, and easy-to-perform molecular technique for pathogen detection in clinical samples. In the current study, the analytical and diagnostic performance of 2 commercial real-time RT-LAMP kits, Avian Flu H5 and(More)
The incursion of the human pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 (2009) (H1N1 pdm) into pig populations and its ongoing co-circulation with endemic swine influenza viruses (SIVs) has yielded distinct human-porcine reassortant virus lineages. The haemagglutinin (HA) gene of H1N1 pdm was detected in 41 influenza virus-positive samples from seven swine herds in(More)
Natural infections with different subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) are very common in wild duck populations. Recent outbreaks of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 in Eurasian and African countries stimulated monitoring activities in aquatic wild bird populations. Surveillance mainly focused on virus(More)