The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV… (More)
We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses. In summer 2007, HPAIV (H5N1) outbreaks in 3 poultry holdings… (More)
An evolutionary analysis was conducted of 354 hemagglutinin (HA) and 208 neuraminidase (NA) genes, including newly generated sequences of 5 HA and 30 NA, of Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans. Five distinct phylogenetically distinguishable clusters arose from a monophyletic origin since 2006. Only two clusters remained in… (More)
To determine susceptibility of chickens, turkeys, and mice to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted contact exposure and inoculation experiments. We demonstrated that chickens were refractory to infection. However, oculo-oronasally inoculated turkeys and intranasally inoculated mice seroconverted without clinical signs of infection.
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds' susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated… (More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus, like the recently described H5N8 strain from Korea, was detected in November 2014 in farmed turkeys and in a healthy common teal (Anas crecca) in northeastern Germany. Infected wild birds possibly introduced this virus.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also designated as Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), is the causative agent of a notifiable disease of poultry but it exhibits different pathogenicity dependent on the virus strain. The molecular basis for this variability is not fully understood. The efficiency of activation of the fusion protein (F) is determined by… (More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus type 1, is a promising vector for expression of heterologous proteins from a variety of unrelated viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). However, pre-existing NDV antibodies may impair vector virus replication, resulting in an inefficient immune response against the foreign… (More)
BACKGROUND Despite considerable host species barriers, interspecies transmissions of influenza A viruses between wild birds, poultry and pigs have been demonstrated repeatedly. In particular, viruses of the subtypes H1 and H3 were transmitted between pigs and poultry, predominantly turkeys, in regions with a high population density of both species. The… (More)
An avian paramyxovirus 6 strain was isolated during a wild bird monitoring study in Kazakhstan in 2013. The virus was isolated from a wild duck red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) in southeastern Kazakhstan. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the virus.