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Personalization of learning has become a prominent issue in the educational field, at various levels. This article elaborates a different view on personalisation than what usually occurs in this area. Its baseline is that personalisation occurs when learning turns out to become personal in the learner's mind. Through a literature survey, we analyze(More)
Learning Management Systems (LMSs) are used in many (educational) institutes to manage the learning process. Adaptive Learning Environments (ALEs) offer support for the learning process through adaptive guidance and perhaps also personalized learning material (content). GRAPPLE offers a new infrastructure that brings both together. This is done through(More)
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In technology-enhanced learning, activity-based learner models can provide evidence for competence assessment. Such models are the foundation for learning and teaching support, such as: adaptation, assessment, and competence analytics, recommendations, and so on. This paper analyses how to construct activity-based learner models based on existing data in(More)
The use of tags as user generated meta-data as well as the visualisation in tag clouds has recently received a lot of attention in research and practice. This paper focuses on supporting reflection of learners by using different presentation approaches of user-generated meta-data for reflection support. Previous research has shown that implicit interest(More)