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This study assessed the ability of high doses of caffeine to reverse changes in alertness and mood produced by prolonged sleep deprivation. Fifty healthy, nonsmoking males between the ages of 18 and 32 served as volunteers. Following 49 h without sleep, caffeine (0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/70 kg, PO) was administered in a double-blind fashion. Measures of(More)
The Distributed Ontology Language (DOL) is currently being standardized within the OntoIOp (Ontology Integration and Inter-operability) activity of ISO/TC 37/SC 3. It aims at providing a unified framework for (1) ontologies formalized in heterogeneous logics, (2) modular ontologies, (3) links between ontologies, and (4) annotation of on-tologies. This paper(More)
This article focuses on the status of VLSI in Japan. It is written from a "Pacific" (as opposed to the generally prevailing "Atlantic" viewpoint) to provide a perspective unfamiliar to many in Europe and America. Japan clearly has the lead in worldwide VLSI development, but the status of VLSI in Japan is usually confusing to foreigners because of the rapid(More)
Even though ontologies are widely being used to enable interoperability in information-rich endeavours, there is currently no unified framework for ontology interoperability itself. Surprisingly little of the state of the art in modularity and structuring, e.g. in software engineering, has been applied to ontology engineering so far. However, application(More)
The important aspect of interoperable content and content accessibility is still not sufficiently acknowledged in most eApplications. Although pertinent standards exist, some of them need revision and additional standards are needed for new requirements. The Recommendation on software and content development principles 2010 formulated at the 12th(More)
Assistive technology, especially for persons with disabilities, increasingly relies on electronic communication among users, between users and their devices, and among these devices. Making such ICT accessible and inclusive often requires remedial programming, which tends to be costly or even impossible. We, therefore, aim at more interoperable devices,(More)
Cutaneous and pulmonary reactions to mediators of inflammation were studied in twenty-one patients with cholinergic urticaria, in twenty patients with other types of urticaria, and in seventeen healthy controls. Compared with controls and patients with moderate disease, patients severely affected by cholinergic urticaria or other types of urticaria(More)