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The strength of synaptic transmission is controlled by the number and activity of neurotransmitter receptors. However, little is known about absolute numbers and densities of receptor and scaffold proteins and the stoichiometry of molecular interactions at synapses. Here, we conducted three-dimensional and quantitative nanoscopic imaging based on(More)
In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include(More)
The postsynaptic density (PSD) signaling machinery contains proteins with diverse functions. Brain region-specific variations in PSD components mediate distinct physiological responses to synaptic activation. We have developed mass spectrometry-based methods to comprehensively compare both relative protein expression and phosphorylation status from proteins(More)
Glycine receptors (GlyRs) can dynamically exchange between synaptic and extrasynaptic locations through lateral diffusion within the plasma membrane. Their accumulation at inhibitory synapses depends on the interaction of the β-subunit of the GlyR with the synaptic scaffold protein gephyrin. An alteration of receptor-gephyrin binding could thus shift the(More)
Synaptic plasticity is dependent on the differential sorting, delivery and retention of neurotransmitter receptors, but the mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. We found that differential sorting of glutamate receptor subtypes began in the endoplasmic reticulum of rat hippocampal neurons. As AMPA receptors (AMPARs) were trafficked to(More)
The activity of neurotransmitter receptors determines the strength of synaptic transmission. Therefore, the clustering of receptors at synapses is an important mechanism underlying synaptic plasticity. The dynamic exchange of receptors between synaptic and extrasynaptic membranes is dependent on their interaction with synaptic scaffold proteins. Here, we(More)
The actin cytoskeleton of dendritic spines plays a key role in morphological aspects of synaptic plasticity. The detailed analysis of the spine structure and dynamics in live neurons, however, has been hampered by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopy. The advent of nanoscopic imaging techniques thus holds great promise(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activity regulates the net number of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR) at the cell surface by modulating the balance between AMPAR membrane insertion and endocytosis. In this study, we addressed the role of NMDAR subtypes and of NMDAR-mediated Ca2+ influx in the(More)
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is an electron-dense structure located at the synaptic contacts between neurons. Its considerable complexity includes cytoskeletal and scaffold proteins, receptors, ion channels and signaling molecules, in line with the role of PSDs in signal transduction and processing. The phosphorylation state of components of the PSD is(More)
High local concentrations of glycine receptors (GlyRs) at inhibitory postsynaptic sites are achieved through their binding to the scaffold protein gephyrin. The N- and C-terminal domains of gephyrin are believed to trimerize and dimerize, respectively, thus contributing to the formation of submembranous gephyrin clusters at synapses. GlyRs are associated(More)