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Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression, downregulates hippocampal CB1 receptors in adult male rats. Given that endocannabinoids are implicated in modulating stress and anxiety and that women are vulnerable to stress-related disorders, we tested the effects of CMS on both female and male rats. Gonadectomized (gndx) and(More)
Large electronic databases of health care information, such as administrative claims and electronic health records, are available and are being used in a number of public health settings, including drug safety surveillance. However, because of a lack of standardization, clinical terminologies may differ across databases. With the aid of existing resources(More)
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in the stress response and alterations in eCB signaling may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders. Exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a model of depression, produces downregulation of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor in the hippocampus of male rats. However, it is unknown how this stress-induced change in CB1(More)
Recently, disruption of the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid, eCB) system was found to impair extinction in delay and contextual fear conditioning models. However, conditioning procedures used in that work precluded investigation of possible eCB effects on acquisition of learned fear. We therefore examined the role of eCBs in modulating fear(More)
Theta rhythms are behaviorally relevant electrical oscillations in the mammalian brain, particularly the hippocampus. In many cases, theta oscillations are shaped by inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) that are driven by glutamatergic and/or cholinergic inputs. Here we show that hippocampal theta rhythm IPSPs induced in the CA1 region by muscarinic(More)
OBJECTIVE Systematic analysis of observational medical databases for active safety surveillance is hindered by the variation in data models and coding systems. Data analysts often find robust clinical data models difficult to understand and ill suited to support their analytic approaches. Further, some models do not facilitate the computations required for(More)
In three species of small therian mammals (Scandentia: Tupaia glis, Rodentia: Galea musteloides and Lagomorpha: Ochotona rufescens) the net joint forces and torques acting during stance phase in the four kinematically relevant joints of the forelimbs (scapular pivot, shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint) and the hindlimbs (hip joint, knee joint, ankle(More)
History of stress is considered a major risk factor for the development of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning may provide insight into the etiology of PTSD. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 weeks of a(More)
We tested the hypothesis that transient, partial inhibition of the Na,K-pumps could produce lasting effects on synaptic efficacy in brain tissue by applying a low concentration of the ouabain analogue, dihydroouabain (DHO), to hippocampal slices for 15 min and studying the effects on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). DHO caused a(More)
GluA2-lacking, calcium-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) have unique properties, but their presence at excitatory synapses in pyramidal cells is controversial. We have tested certain predictions of the model that such receptors are present in CA1 cells and show here that the polyamine spermine, but not(More)