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BACKGROUND Excitatory synapses in the CNS are highly dynamic structures that can show activity-dependent remodeling and stabilization in response to learning and memory. Synapses are enveloped with intricate processes of astrocytes known as perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs). PAPs are motile structures displaying rapid actin-dependent movements and(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is known to produce the phytoalexin camalexin in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here we studied the mechanisms of tolerance to camalexin in the fungus Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogen of A. thaliana. Exposure of B. cinerea to camalexin induces expression of BcatrB, an ABC transporter that functions in the efflux of(More)
The relationship between macroscopic chirality and chirality on the molecular level was unequivocally established in 1951 through anomalous X-ray scattering. Although this technique became the definitive method for determining the absolute configuration of a molecule, one important limitation of the approach is that the molecule must contain 'heavy' atoms(More)
The possibility of wavelength-selective cleavage of seven photolabile caging groups from different families has been studied. Amine-, thiol-, and carboxylic-terminated organosilanes were caged with o-nitrobenzyl (NVOC, NPPOC), benzoin (BNZ), (coumarin-4-yl)methyl (DEACM), 7-nitroindoline (DNI, BNI), and p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) derivatives. Caged surfaces(More)
The photolysis of o-nitrobenzyl alcohol derivatives shows a strong kinetic isotope effect (KIE up to 8.3) at the benzylic center. For some derivatives, the KIE is wavelength dependent, suggesting the involvement of higher excited states. In addition to the important mechanistic consequences, isotopic substitution is a convenient way to alter the quantum(More)
The main challenge in developing new wavelength-specific photolabile protecting groups is the rigorous control of the photolysis rate. This rate is controlled by two factors: the chromophore absorbance and the reaction quantum yield. Fine-tuning the properties by changing substituents or structural features is difficult, because both factors are(More)
Chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) have been developed to orchestrate protein dimerization and translocation. Here we present a novel photocleavable HaloTag- and SNAP-tag-reactive CID (MeNV-HaXS) with excellent selectivity and intracellular reactivity. Excitation at 360 nm cleaves the methyl-6-nitroveratryl core of MeNV-HaXS. MeNV-HaXS covalently(More)