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BACKGROUND Excitatory synapses in the CNS are highly dynamic structures that can show activity-dependent remodeling and stabilization in response to learning and memory. Synapses are enveloped with intricate processes of astrocytes known as perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs). PAPs are motile structures displaying rapid actin-dependent movements and(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is known to produce the phytoalexin camalexin in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here we studied the mechanisms of tolerance to camalexin in the fungus Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogen of A. thaliana. Exposure of B. cinerea to camalexin induces expression of BcatrB, an ABC transporter that functions in the efflux of(More)
The possibility of wavelength-selective cleavage of seven photolabile caging groups from different families has been studied. Amine-, thiol-, and carboxylic-terminated organosilanes were caged with o-nitrobenzyl (NVOC, NPPOC), benzoin (BNZ), (coumarin-4-yl)methyl (DEACM), 7-nitroindoline (DNI, BNI), and p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) derivatives. Caged surfaces(More)
Chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) have been developed to orchestrate protein dimerization and translocation. Here we present a novel photocleavable HaloTag- and SNAP-tag-reactive CID (MeNV-HaXS) with excellent selectivity and intracellular reactivity. Excitation at 360 nm cleaves the methyl-6-nitroveratryl core of MeNV-HaXS. MeNV-HaXS covalently(More)
The selective control of a chemical process by the use of an electromagnetic wave has been a challenging goal for several decades. In this article, we describe for the first time the use of a monochromatic light beam to differentiate two different reactive centers. A direct application of this concept is found in the chemistry of protecting groups. Two(More)
The relationship between macroscopic chirality and chirality on the molecular level was unequivocally established in 1951 through anomalous X-ray scattering. Although this technique became the definitive method for determining the absolute configuration of a molecule, one important limitation of the approach is that the molecule must contain 'heavy' atoms(More)
Neuroscience studies require technologies able to deliver compounds with both scale and timing compatibility with morphological and physiological synaptic properties. In this light, two-photon flash photolysis has been extensively used to successfully apply glutamate or other neurotransmitters at the synaptic level. However, the set of commercially(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. Hallmarks of the disease are well known; indeed, this pathology is characterized by lipofuscin accumulation, is principally composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. The N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) retinoid which is thought(More)