Christian G. Bien

Learn More
Patients presenting with subacute amnesia are frequently seen in acute neurological practice. Amongst the differential diagnoses, herpes simplex encephalitis, Korsakoff's syndrome and limbic encephalitis should be considered. Limbic encephalitis is typically a paraneoplastic syndrome with a poor prognosis; thus, identifying those patients with potentially(More)
Antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor have been associated with a newly-described encephalopathy that has been mainly identified in young females with ovarian tumours. However, the full clinical spectrum and treatment responses are not yet clear. We established a sensitive cell-based assay for detection of N-methyl-d-aspartate(More)
Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare but severe immune-mediated brain disorder leading to unilateral hemispheric atrophy, associated progressive neurological dysfunction and intractable seizures. Recent data on the pathogenesis of the disease, its clinical and paraclinical presentation, and therapeutic approaches are summarized. Based on these data, we(More)
Several CNS disorders associated with specific antibodies to ion channels, receptors, and other synaptic proteins have been recognised over the past 10 years, and can be often successfully treated with immunotherapies. Antibodies to components of voltage-gated potassium channel complexes (VGKCs), NMDA receptors (NMDARs), AMPA receptors (AMPARs), GABA type B(More)
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most frequent histopathology encountered in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Over the past decades, various attempts have been made to classify specific patterns of hippocampal neuronal cell loss and correlate subtypes with postsurgical outcome. However, no international consensus about definitions(More)
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, usually affecting one brain hemisphere. In the present study, a comprehensive assessment of the natural history of the disorder is presented. Seizure frequency, degree of hemiparesis and degree of cerebral hemiatrophy in 13 patients with histopathologically proven RE are(More)
Rasmussen's encephalitis is a progressive epileptic disorder characterized by unihemispheric lymphocytic infiltrates, microglial nodules, and neuronal loss leading to the destruction of the affected hemisphere. In this study, immunohistochemical evaluation of specimens from 11 patients revealed lymphocytic infiltrates that consisted mainly of CD3(+)CD8(+) T(More)
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for(More)
Classical paraneoplastic encephalitis syndromes with 'onconeural' antibodies directed to intracellular antigens, and the recently described paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic encephalitides and antibodies against both neural surface antigens (voltage-gated potassium channel-complexes, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) and intracellular antigens (glutamic(More)
OBJECTIVE Temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) is the most frequent diagnosis in autopsy and surgical epilepsy series. TLE-HS usually starts during childhood or adolescence. There have been few studies of adult-onset disease. We recognized that some adult individuals have evidence of limbic encephalitis (LE), an autoimmune condition of(More)