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People can rapidly form arbitrary associations between stimuli and the responses they make in the presence of those stimuli. Such stimulus-response (S-R) bindings, when retrieved, affect the way that people respond to the same, or related, stimuli. Only recently, however, has the flexibility and ubiquity of these S-R bindings been appreciated, particularly(More)
In 4 experiments, the authors found evidence for negatively signed masked semantic priming effects (with category names as primes and exemplars as targets) using a new technique of presenting the masked primes. By rapidly interchanging prime and mask during the stimulus onset asynchrony, they increased the total prime exposure to a level comparable with(More)
Stress and cortisol are generally considered to impair declarative memory retrieval, although opposite results have also been reported. Dose-dependent effects and differences between genomic and non-genomic cortisol effects are possible reasons for these discrepancies. The aim of the current experiment was to assess the non-genomic effects of escalating(More)
AIM To gain mechanistic insights into the role played by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS The impact of high-level expression of the growth factor receptors EGFR and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)3 and the VEGFR3 ligands VEGF-C and VEGF-D on disease(More)
The emotional Stroop effect refers to the phenomenon that participants are faster in responding to the ink colour of neutral than of negative word stimuli, possibly reflecting fast and automatic allocation of attention towards negative stimuli. However, this interpretation was challenged by McKenna and Sharma (2004) who found that the emotional Stroop(More)
In this paper, we yield evidence for the dependence of affective priming on the congruency of the previous trial. Affective priming refers to the finding that valence categorizations of targets are facilitated when the preceding prime is of the same valence. In two experiments, affective priming was diminished after incongruent trials (i.e., prime and(More)
It is an accepted, albeit puzzling finding that negative priming (NP) hinges on the presence of distractors in probe displays. In three experiments without probe distractors, the authors yielded evidence that response-biasing processes based on the contingency between prime and probe displays may have caused this finding. It is argued that it is of help in(More)
We investigated electrophysiological correlates of the access to semantic representations. Participants had to make word/nonword decisions to target words. A first word (i.e. the prime) preceded the target. The prime was either semantically related or unrelated to the target. Using a special masking technique we were able to present the prime rather long(More)
There is abundant evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological experiments for the distinction of natural versus artifactual categories and a gender-specific difference: women's performances in cognitive tasks increase when natural categories are used, whereas men's performances increase with artifactual categories. Here, we used the semantic priming(More)
We used a qualitative dissociation procedure to assess semantic priming from spatially attended and unattended masked words. Participants categorized target words that were preceded by parafoveal prime words belonging to either the same (20%) or the opposite (80%) category as the target. Using this paradigm, only non-strategic use of the prime would result(More)