Christian Even

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BACKGROUND Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness that may involve multiple relapses and result in substantial psychosocial impairment. However, very few recent studies have investigated the economic burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE To assess the frequency of hospitalisation and the inpatient care costs associated with manic episodes in patients with(More)
Few studies have been specifically carried out to characterize the dimensional structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and those that have, have yielded contradictory results. We have examined the factor structure and sensitivity to change of the HADS in a large French outpatient primary care population treated with sertraline for(More)
A 35year-old professional man was hospitalised for depression in November 1995. During the past 8 years he experienced four attacks of a relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), clinically definite according to Poser’s criteria (Poser et al, 1983). He also suffered from a bipolar affective disorder as does his sister, who receives prophylactic lithium(More)
OBJECTIVES There are circumstances in which partial seizures may be misdiagnosed as acute psychiatric disturbances. In particular, when fear is the prominent feature the patient may be considered for years as having panic attacks. Eight patients in whom fear was the main symptom of the seizures are reported on. Patients who had a proved lack of(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term lithium administration in humans may lead to chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, which develops very slowly. Its progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been rarely reported. The aim of this study is to document the rate of progression of lithium-induced nephropathy and its prognostic factors, and to provide an estimation of(More)
INTRODUCTION The occurrence of depression during pregnancy is a frequent situation that must be distinguished from postpartum depression. It raises many questions regarding its complications and therapeutic options. OBJECTIVES To provide a systematic review of available data on prevalence, risk factors, and adverse outcomes of antepartum depression, as(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of personality dysfunction on the outcome of treatment for depression remains debated. AIMS To examine the relationship between the number of prior depressive episodes, personality dysfunction and treatment response for depression. METHOD In a large sample (n = 8229) of adult out-patients with a major depressive episode (DSM-IV),(More)
The hypothesis that a dysfunction of serotonergic neurotransmission is implicated in depression is supported by the clinical efficiency of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of depressive disorders. These drugs, such as fluoxetine and paroxetine, exert their antidepressant activity by increasing 5-HT(More)
This case-control study found an association between Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (intronic rs2072621) of the gene encoding GPR50 (an orphan member of the G protein-coupled melatonin receptor subfamily) in females. This may represent a gender-specific risk factor and a molecular link between melatonin and SAD.
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of alexithymia in insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) outpatients. To examine whether alexithymia is associated with diabetic somatic variables, depression, and compliance. METHOD Our sample comprised 69 diabetic outpatients followed in a university hospital. We assessed the prevalence of alexithymia (26-item(More)