Christian Enzinger

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More than half of all elderly people have some degree of cerebral white matter lesions. However, the rate of progression of these lesions is uncertain. We aimed to assess the progression of lesions in community-dwelling volunteers aged 50-75 years without neuropsychiatric disease. We used MRI to grade and measure the total volume of white matter lesions in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Strokes have especially devastating implications if they occur early in life; however, only limited information exists on the characteristics of acute cerebrovascular disease in young adults. Although risk factors and manifestation of atherosclerosis are commonly associated with stroke in the elderly, recent data suggests different(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the rate of brain atrophy in neurologically asymptomatic elderly and to investigate the impact of baseline variables including conventional cerebrovascular risk factors, APOE epsilon4, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on its progression. METHODS We assessed the brain parenchymal fraction at baseline and subsequent annual brain(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to focal multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. For this reason, conventional MRI measures of the burden of disease derived from dual-echo, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences are regularly used to monitor disease course in patients with confirmed MS and have been included in the(More)
Despite extensive research over the last decades the clinical significance of white matter lesions (WMLs) is still a matter of debate. Here, we review current knowledge of the correlation between WMLs and cognitive functioning as well as their predictive value for future stroke, dementia, and functional decline in activities of daily living. There is clear(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage at the convexity of the brain (cSAH) is an incompletely characterized subtype of nonaneurysmal subarachnoid bleeding. This study sought to systematically describe the clinical presentation, etiology, and long-term outcome in patients with cSAH. METHODS For a 6-year period, we searched our(More)
White matter changes occur endemically in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly persons. MRI appearance and histopathological correlates of white matter changes are heterogeneous. Smooth periventricular hyperintensities, including caps around the ventricular horns, periventricular lining and halos are likely to be of non-vascular origin.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is poorly understood, but endothelial activation and dysfunction may play a causal role. Cross-sectional studies have found increased circulating markers of endothelial activation, but this study design cannot exclude causality from secondary elevations. Confluent white matter(More)
PURPOSE To assess the relationships of microstructural damage in the cerebral white matter (WM), as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), with clinical parameters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of focal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-five relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients (12(More)
OBJECTIVE We explored cognitive impairment in metabolic syndrome in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 819 participants free of clinical stroke and dementia of the population-based Austrian Stroke Prevention Study who had undergone brain MRI, neuropsychological testing, and a risk factor(More)