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Enterprise-control system integration between business systems, manufacturing execution systems and shop-floor process-control systems remains a key issue for facilitating the deployment of plant-wide information-control systems for practical e-Business-to-Manufacturing industry-led issues. This achievement of the Integration-in-Manufacturing paradigm based(More)
This paper gives an introduction to the essential challenges of software engineering and requirements that software has to fulfill in the domain of automation. Besides, the functional characteristics, specific constraints and circumstances are considered for deriving requirements concerning usability, the technical process, the automation functions, used(More)
The ability of ligand field molecular mechanics (LFMM) to model accurately the structures and relative conformer energies of complexes containing the [Cu2O2](2+) unit found in oxidized copper type 3 (T3) enzymes is investigated. The consequences of ignoring the coupling between the metal centers are analyzed and predicted to be unimportant with respect to(More)
Existing models focus on specific aspects of distributed automation systems, e.g. communication aspects (IEC 61158) or application aspects (IEC 61131–3). Systems like IEC 61499 are directly dedicated to distributed applications but leave essential details of communication integration open. For the design of distributed automation systems it is(More)