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A comprehensive investigation of polar stratospheric clouds was performed on 25 January 2000 with instruments onboard a balloon gondola flown from Kiruna, Sweden. Cloud layers were repeatedly encountered at altitudes between 20 and 24 kilometers over a wide range of atmospheric temperatures (185 to 197 kelvin). Particle composition analysis showed that a(More)
Graded distributions of ephrin ligands are involved in the formation of topographic maps. However, it is still poorly understood how growth cones read gradients of membrane-bound guidance molecules. We used microcontact printing to produce discontinuous gradients of substrate-bound ephrinA5. These consist of submicron-sized protein-covered spots, which vary(More)
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) are two popular microscopy techniques that have evolved quite independently. CDI promises to reach resolutions below 10 nanometers, but the reconstruction procedures put stringent requirements on data quality and sample preparation. In contrast, STXM features(More)
Microcontact printing (microCP) of proteins has been successfully used for patterning surfaces in various contexts. Here we describe a simple 'lift-off' method to print precise patterns of axon guidance molecules, which are used as substrate for growing chick retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Briefly, the etched pattern of a silicon master is transferred(More)
We demonstrate a hard-x-ray microscope that does not use a lens and is not limited to a small field of view or an object of finite size. The method does not suffer any of the physical constraints, convergence problems, or defocus ambiguities that often arise in conventional phase-retrieval diffractive imaging techniques. Calculation times are about a(More)
We report on significant advances and new results concerning a recently developed method for grating-based hard x-ray phase tomography. We demonstrate how the soft tissue sensitivity of the technique is increased and show in vitro tomographic images of a tumor bearing rat brain sample, without use of contrast agents. In particular, we observe that the brain(More)
A growing number of X-ray sources based on the free-electron laser (XFEL) principle are presently under construction or have recently started operation. The intense, ultrashort pulses of these sources will enable new insights in many different fields of science. A key problem is to provide x-ray optical elements capable of collecting the largest possible(More)
The first imaging results obtained from a small-size synchrotron are reported. The newly developed Compact Light Source produces inverse Compton X-rays at the intersection point of the counter propagating laser and electron beam. The small size of the intersection point gives a highly coherent cone beam with a few milliradian angular divergence and a few(More)
Imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray computed tomography are established methods in daily clinical diagnosis of human brain. Clinical equipment does not provide sufficient spatial resolution to obtain morphological information on the cellular level, essential for applying minimally or non-invasive surgical interventions.(More)
We report on a two-directional approach for grating based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging. In order to retrieve good quality and artifact-free phase images for quantitative analysis and image processing, particular emphasis is put on the algorithm for proper phase retrieval. Examples of application are discussed that demonstrate the functionality(More)