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Predicting which species will occur together in the future, and where, remains one of the greatest challenges in ecology, and requires a sound understanding of how the abiotic and biotic environments interact with dispersal processes and history across scales. Biotic interactions and their dynamics influence species' relationships to climate, and this also(More)
BACKGROUND Flower visiting insects provide a vitally important pollination service for many crops and wild plants. Recent decline of pollinating insects due to anthropogenic modification of habitats and climate, in particular from 1950's onwards, is a major and widespread concern. However, few studies document the extent of declines in species diversity,(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Hierarchical sampling Pinpoint Point-intercept Plant cover Spatial scale Zero-inflated and bounded beta-distribution Zero-inflated generalised binomial distribution Plant abundance data are often analysed using standard statistical procedures without considering their distributional features and the underlying ecological(More)
A novel method for measuring plant-plant interactions in undisturbed semi-natural and natural plant communities where it is difficult to distinguish individual plants is discussed. It is assumed that the ecological success of the different plant species in the plant community may be adequately measured by plant cover and vertical density (a measure that is(More)
OBJECTIVES Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of(More)
Ants are functionally important organisms in most terrestrial ecosystems. Being ubiquitous and abundant, ant communities can affect the availability of resources to both primary and secondary consumers. As nitrogen is a limiting nutrient for plant growth in most terrestrial ecosystems, deposition of ant manure may augment the host plants’ acquisition of(More)
The ecological success of a plant species is typically described by the observed change in plant abundance or cover, but in order to more fully understand the fundamental plant ecological processes, it is necessary to inspect the underlying processes of survival and colonization and how they are affected by environmental conditions. A general ecological(More)
The expected fixation probability of an advantageous allele was examined in a partially self-fertilizing hermaphroditic plant species using the diffusion approximation. The selective advantage of the advantageous allele was assumed to be increased viability, increased fecundity, or an increase in male fitness. The mode of selection, as well as the selfing(More)