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Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust(More)
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, the viral-chemical etiology as well as molecular mechanisms of HCC pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Recent studies in our laboratory have identified several potential factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. Oxidative stress and chronic(More)
The presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-containing particles in the low-density fractions of plasma has been associated with high infectivity. However, the nature of circulating HCV particles and their association with immunoglobulins or lipoproteins as well as the characterization of cell entry have all been subject to conflicting reports. For a better(More)
We have developed a new assay, ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells), which allows the counting and the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in patients with carcinoma, using peripheral blood sample volumes as small as 1 ml. Using this assay, epithelial tumor cells can be isolated individually by(More)
110 HBsAg-positive patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation and received long-term anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) passive immunoprophylaxis with anti-HBs immunoglobulin. During a mean follow-up period of 20 months, all patients became HBsAg negative after transplantation but circulating HBsAg reappeared in 25 (22.7%). Overall 1-year survival was(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA frequently integrates into the genome of human primary liver cancer cells, but the significance of this integration in liver carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here we report the cloning of a single HBV integration site in a human hepatocellular carcinoma at an early stage of development, and of its germline counterpart. The normal(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration into or close to cellular genes is frequently detected in HBV positive hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). We have previously shown that viral integration can lead to aberrant target gene transcription. In this study, we attempted to investigate common pathways to hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS By(More)
In higher eukaryotes, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) complexed with cyclins. A-type cyclins are involved at both G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle. Cyclin A2 activates cdc2 (Cdk1) on passage into mitosis and Cdk2 at the G1/S transition. Antisense constructs, or antibodies directed against cyclin A2 block(More)
We investigated the possibility of infecting normal adult human hepatocytes maintained in pure cultures or in cocultures with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Several assays with different infectious sera and hepatocyte populations from various donors identified only limited HBV replication, with significant variations from one cell preparation to another. The(More)