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Integrase is essential for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) replication; however, potent inhibition of the isolated enzyme in biochemical assays has not readily translated into antiviral activity in a manner consistent with inhibition of integration. In this report, we describe diketo acid inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase that manifest antiviral(More)
To identify novel inhibitors of transcriptional activation by the HIV Tat protein, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo Tat-dependent transcription assays to screen >100,000 compounds. All compounds identified blocked Tat-dependent stimulation of transcriptional elongation. Analysis of a panel of structurally diverse inhibitors indicated that their(More)
This paper describes the use of a new polyimide sieve electrode as a chronic neural interface to stimulate and record signals from regenerated peripheral nerves. Flexible thin polyimide electrodes were placed in silicone chambers and implanted between the severed ends of the sciatic nerve in rats. The sieve part of the interface has 281 round via holes of(More)
During protein synthesis, tRNAs move from the ribosome's aminoacyl to peptidyl to exit sites. Here we investigate conformational motions during spontaneous translocation, using molecular dynamics simulations of 13 intermediate-translocation-state models obtained by combining Escherichia coli ribosome crystal structures with cryo-EM data. Resolving fast(More)
Short-range interatomic interactions govern many bio-molecular processes. Therefore, identifying close interaction partners in ensemble data is an essential task in structural biology and computational biophysics. A contact search can be cast as a typical range search problem for which efficient algorithms have been developed. However, none of those has yet(More)
We have identified a series of novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase by randomly screening natural product extracts using an in vitro biochemical assay designed to identify inhibitors of integrase-catalysed strand transfer. Equisetin recovered from the fungus Fusarium heterosporum and a novel enantiomeric homologue of(More)
The integration of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the genome of the host cell is an essential step in the replication of all retroviruses. Integration requires two discrete biochemical reactions; specific processing of each viral long terminal repeat terminus or donor substrate, and a DNA strand transfer step wherein the processed donor substrate is(More)
During ribosomal translation, the two ribosomal subunits remain associated through intersubunit bridges, despite rapid large-scale intersubunit rotation. The absence of large barriers hindering rotation is a prerequisite for rapid rotation. Here, we investigate how such a flat free-energy landscape is achieved, in particular considering the large shifts the(More)