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BACKGROUND The use of technical aids to confirm brain death is a controversial matter. Angiography with the intra-arterial administration of contrast medium is the international gold standard, but it is not allowed in Germany except in cases where it provides a potential mode of treatment. The currently approved tests in Germany are recordings of(More)
Vascular damage and platelet activation are associated with tissue remodeling in diseases such as systemic sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this association have not been identified. In this study, we show that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) stored in platelets strongly induces extracellular matrix synthesis in interstitial(More)
When systemic delivery of O2 [QO2 = cardiac output X arterial O2 content (CaO2)] is reduced, the systemic O2 extraction ratio [(CaO2-concentration of O2 in venous blood/CaO2] increases until a critical limit is reached below which O2 uptake (VO2) becomes limited by delivery. Many patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome exhibit supply dependence of(More)
Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane-bound vesicles that are emerging as important elements in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases owing to their pleiotropic effects on thrombosis, vascular reactivity, angiogenesis and inflammation. Released from cells during activation and apoptosis, MPs carry proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and serve as(More)
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling pathway is a key mediator of fibroblast activation that drives the aberrant synthesis of extracellular matrix in fibrotic diseases. Here we demonstrate a novel link between transforming growth factor-β and the canonical Wnt pathway. TGF-β stimulates canonical Wnt signalling in a p38-dependent manner by(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and a major socioeconomic burden. Our study is the first to explore the association between serum microRNA levels and the development of severe osteoarthritis of the knee and hip joint in the general population. METHODS We followed 816 Caucasian individuals from 1995 to 2010 and assessed joint(More)
OBJECTIVES Autophagy is a homeostatic process to recycle dispensable and damaged cell organelles. Dysregulation of autophagic pathways has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy during joint destruction in arthritis. METHODS Autophagy in osteoclasts was analysed in vitro and ex vivo by(More)
BACKGROUND Fibrosis and vascular disease are cardinal features of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Stimulators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) are vasoactive drugs that are currently being evaluated in phase III clinical trials for pulmonary arterial hypertension. OBJECTIVE To study the antifibrotic potency of sGC stimulators. METHODS The effect of the sGC(More)
Four patterns of structural alterations were found in lymph nodes (LNs) from rhesus monkeys 17 to 34 months after infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-mac251). SIV p27gag antigen and viral particles were localized either between the processes of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or in the cytoplasm of macrophages. In hyperplastic follicles,(More)
Osteoporosis is characterized by enhanced differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, resulting in a rapid loss of functional trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and osteoblast-derived osteocytes perform a key role in the regulation of osteoclast development by providing both the pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand(More)