Learn More
BACKGROUND The use of technical aids to confirm brain death is a controversial matter. Angiography with the intra-arterial administration of contrast medium is the international gold standard, but it is not allowed in Germany except in cases where it provides a potential mode of treatment. The currently approved tests in Germany are recordings of(More)
Vascular damage and platelet activation are associated with tissue remodeling in diseases such as systemic sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this association have not been identified. In this study, we show that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) stored in platelets strongly induces extracellular matrix synthesis in interstitial(More)
Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane-bound vesicles that are emerging as important elements in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases owing to their pleiotropic effects on thrombosis, vascular reactivity, angiogenesis and inflammation. Released from cells during activation and apoptosis, MPs carry proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and serve as(More)
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling pathway is a key mediator of fibroblast activation that drives the aberrant synthesis of extracellular matrix in fibrotic diseases. Here we demonstrate a novel link between transforming growth factor-β and the canonical Wnt pathway. TGF-β stimulates canonical Wnt signalling in a p38-dependent manner by(More)
OBJECTIVES Autophagy is a homeostatic process to recycle dispensable and damaged cell organelles. Dysregulation of autophagic pathways has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy during joint destruction in arthritis. METHODS Autophagy in osteoclasts was analysed in vitro and ex vivo by(More)
BACKGROUND Fibrosis and vascular disease are cardinal features of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Stimulators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) are vasoactive drugs that are currently being evaluated in phase III clinical trials for pulmonary arterial hypertension. OBJECTIVE To study the antifibrotic potency of sGC stimulators. METHODS The effect of the sGC(More)
Four patterns of structural alterations were found in lymph nodes (LNs) from rhesus monkeys 17 to 34 months after infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-mac251). SIV p27gag antigen and viral particles were localized either between the processes of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or in the cytoplasm of macrophages. In hyperplastic follicles,(More)
Osteoporosis is characterized by enhanced differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, resulting in a rapid loss of functional trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and osteoblast-derived osteocytes perform a key role in the regulation of osteoclast development by providing both the pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of NF-κB ligand(More)
OBJECTIVES S100A4 is a calcium binding protein with regulatory functions in cell homeostasis, proliferation and differentiation that has been shown to promote cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of S100A4 in fibroblast activation in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS The expression of S100A4 was analysed in human(More)
OBJECTIVE T-helper type 2 responses are crucial in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and may enhance the production of IgG4 antibodies. The authors assessed the IgG4 immune response in CSS patients. METHODS The authors included 46 consecutive patients with CSS (24 with active and 22 with quiescent disease), 26 with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA,(More)